Archives du mot-clé femmes

Women’s long struggle for equality (1)

La longue lutte des Femmes pour l’égalité (1)

The day of November 25 is dedicated by the UN to violence against women. This year, it has had a significant impact. Probably because it was coming after the Harvey Weinstein affair. It is to be hoped that, one event chasing the other, the question will not be forgotten until next year.

In 1993, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women, and in 1999, on 25 November, was proclaimed International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women, in remembrance of the assassination, sponsored by the dictator Rafael Trujillo, of the three Mirabal sisters, Dominican political activists, on November 25, 1960.

 Some figures, published on the occasion of this day, give an idea of the extent of the problem.
According to the United Nations, data from 87 countries from 2005 to 2016, 19% of women aged 15 to 49 report having experienced physical or sexual violence by an intimate partner in the 12 months preceding the survey (1).

In the European Union, in 2015, 215,000 sexual crimes were reported to the police, one-third of them rapes. The victims are women in 90% of the cases and 99% of those imprisoned for these crimes are men.

In France, the police registered 16,741 complaints, nearly 50 sexual assault reports and 31 rape complaints per 100,000 inhabitants (10,729 complaints in total).
All these figures probably underestimate the importance of the phenomenon because they only count the cases reported to the police (2).

Beyond the case, we must not forget a permanent and universal phenomenon. In the UN survey, cited above, in 2012, nearly half of the world’s female homicide victims were killed by an intimate partner or family member, compared with 6% of men.
In France, two women die every week and one man every two weeks because of violence in the couple.

The main cause, for homicide men, is the refusal of a separation in progress or that has already taken place. For women, often victims of previous violence, it is the occasion of yet another dispute (3).

In 2014, La Croix reported a survey of the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights on 42,000 Europeans: one in five women reported being victims of physical and / or sexual violence. For France, one in four women. And three out of four French women have been harassed against one in two in Europe. Nearly one out of two had to deal with physical, sexual or psychological violence in childhood against a third of Europeans.
Surprisingly enough in this study, the Scandinavian countries, Finland, Sweden, are rather misclassified. More than the importance of violence, this would translate into a more free speech of women, more aware (4).

Whatever the studies, the results do not make it possible to establish a track record between the countries because the figures collected depend enormously on the conditions of collection of information, sensitization and general attitudes towards sexual violence. They only allow to highlight and the ubiquity and the importance of the problem.

Sexual harassment, rape are widespread in time, they do not date from yesterday, and in space, social classes, countries, continents.

La longue lutte des Femmes pour l’égalité (1)

The Harvey Weinstein affair played a special role this year, because Hollywood’s most powerful film producer thought himself untouchable and had a behavior that everyone knew was particularly hateful.
For this behavior to be denounced in the press, it took women who have a certain social surface to publicly assume their accusation.

Two well-known women journalists: Megan Twohey, who helped uncover, among other things, the behavior of Donald J. Trump towards women and Jodi Kantor, a specialist in gender and labor issues that followed the US presidential campaign of 2008 , who challenged Harvey Weinstein, in the New York Times on October 5, 2017. They were relayed on October 10 by an article by New Yorker Ronan Farrow.

In total, Harvey Weinstein has been publicly charged with sexual harassment, offering to promote their career for sexual favors, wanting to buy the silence of some of his victims for large sums and rapes, which many people knew, by more than 70 women, mostly actresses but also employees, journalists, producers, models who felt strong enough for that.

These behaviors are more prevalent among women in situations of weakness for whom it is difficult to protest. Sometimes, it is the victims who are condemned! In 2007, a MeToo campaign was launched to denounce sexual violence, particularly against visible minorities. Without much success (5).
This year, following articles in the two prestigious newspapers, an American actress is proposing to resume the #metoo campaign to share stories of sexual and gender-based violence in different media. Other personalities are implicated. From there, other women rose, all over the world ..

This campaign is taken over in France in the form #BalanceTonPorc so that fear changes camp. It’s a quick success. And #MeToo and also taken in 85 countries including, after the United States, the UK, India, Pakistan, Japan … But still in other languages and countries: in French in Canada, in Arabic, Tunisia, Egypt, Dubai: أنا_كمان, China: # 我 也是, Spain: # YoTambién, South Korea: # 나도, Vietnam: # TôiCũngVậy, Israel: גםאנחנו # (UsAussi), Italy: #QuellaVoltaChe (TheTimewhen)

The messages broadcast report facts from words to rape through harassment, aggression … in different professional circles (entertainment world, politics, finance, sport …), school, family, sometimes by designating known personalities. Some of whom resign from their job …

La longue lutte des Femmes pour l’égalité (1)

In this story, the insightful philosopher Alain Finkielkraut immediately sees the profound meaning of the operation one of the objectives of the campaign #balancetonporc was to play the fish of Islam.
Certainly, it is conceivable that the denunciation of people and the elegant form of the French #BalanceTonPorc shock him. It is much less acceptable that he underestimates the seriousness of the facts, the hierarchical blackmail, the rape, the murdered women …, that it minimizes the courage of these women who expose themselves.
He could have recognized, for once, the benefits of the opening of studies, here and elsewhere, to thousands of girls who, little by little, have acquired the cultural, professional, economic means of their independence.

In 1965, I was very surprised to find in an amphitheater of the faculty of letters in Toulouse that the vast majority of the audience was female! I came to the conclusion that it had to be translated, one day or another, at the level of society. I did not know how

Quite simply, for fifty years, women have taken charge of struggles for their liberation, their autonomy and equal rights. That this poses problems for some people, for society … it is obvious, but liberation poses always problems. A new balance is to be found.

Now, we must hope that this event does not fall into oblivion until the next case. That it will favor, at least in certain societies, the evolution of mentalities not towards a war of the sexes but towards the invention of a new living together, more balanced.

La longue lutte des Femmes pour l’égalité (1)




Le délire hollandais contre les binationaux a de la peine avec le délire sarkosyen contre les binationaux pour rendre leur stigmatisation unique, républicaine, obligatoire et constitutionnelle.

Pour essayer de rejoindre cette cohorte de mal aimés de la République, je me suis plongé dans les archives familiales pour voir si je ne pouvais pas adjoindre à ma nationalité française de souche, par ma mère, une nationalité de souche espagnole par mes grands-parents paternels. Je n’ai pas encore trouvé la solution.

Mais j’ai trouvé de vieux papiers qui m’ont étonné malgré leur banalité.

Dans un acte du 26 décembre 1933, mon père a « déclaré autoriser expressément… son épouse, demeurant avec lui », ma mère, « à l’effet d’exercer le commerce de modiste qu’elle exploite… » « dont elle s’est rendue personnellement propriétaire… moyennant un prix qu’elle a payé avec des fonds provenant de son travail personnel ; et ce du consentement de M. O. comparant ; d’exploiter en conséquence le dit fonds de commerce, en son propre nom, en se livrant à toutes opérations…. »

Au delà du style notarial, sans mettre en cause les relations entre mes parents qui m’ont toujours paru relativement égalitaires, légalement, l’homme devait autoriser expressément, donner son consentement à l’exploitation d’un commerce que la femme, avait payé avec des fonds provenant de son travail !

Dans un acte du 13 juillet 1949, devant le même notaire ont comparu… « Madame Orosina Carmen O., sans profession, épouse assistée et autorisée de Monsieur L.R.… née à… le dix janvier mil neuf cent vingt deux... » pour bénéficier de l’héritage de ses parents après leur décès.

Pour hériter de son père, la femme devait être assistée et autorisée par son mari ! Aurait-elle été déshéritée s’il ne l’avait pas assistée et autorisée ?

Par ces 2 actes qui datent, certes, du siècle dernier mais appartiennent à mon histoire familiale immédiate, sous la Troisième République, ma mère âgée de 24 ans, avait besoin de l’autorisation, devant notaire, de son mari pour exploiter un fonds de commerce acquis « avec des fonds provenant de son travail personnel » !

Sous la Quatrième République, ma tante, âgée de 26 ans, devait être « assistée et autorisée » par son mari pour hériter de ses parents !

Bien sûr, cette tutelle des femmes nous paraît dater d’une république antédiluvienne, aujourd’hui où l’égalité femmes-hommes est si souvent, si hautement, proclamée valeur fondamentale de la République.


Faut-il rappeler que le droit de vote date de 1944, que ce n’est que depuis 1965 que les femmes peuvent gérer leurs biens propres, ouvrir un compte bancaire et exercer une activité professionnelle sans le consentement de leur mari ?

Faut-il rappeler toutes les inégalités qui perdurent encore et qui sont parfaitement connues de tous : répartition déséquilibrée des professions, les femmes plus souvent à temps partiel, sous représentation des femmes dans les institutions (27 % à l’Assemblée, 25 % au Sénat malgré la loi sur la parité), inégalités de salaires*…

Certains prétendent que des statistique ethniques sont nécessaires pour lutter efficacement contre les discriminations et les inégalités. Nécessaires ? Peut-être. Mais non suffisantes. Les inégalités hommes-femmes sont connues, étudiées, publiées depuis longtemps, les inégalités perdurent…

Il est étonnant de constater comment, hier et aujourd’hui, nous pouvons vivre sereinement dans une situation que nous connaissons et que tout le monde (ou presque) condamne.
Mais avec les proclamations répétées, désintéressées, sans aucune arrière pensée, des politiques de tous bords, cette partie de novaleurs va rapidement entrer dans les faits.

Le projet de réforme de la Constitution est en marche, l’élection présidentielle approche, tous pour l’égalité des droits !?




* Liste non exhaustive reprise des premiers titres qui apparaissent dans « observatoire des inégalités » quand on tape « inégalités hommes-femmes » sur un moteur de recherche.