President Macron and his government want to distort (déformer/réformer) pensions, in particular by abolishing special regimes, by establishing a point of financial equilibrium … (1) He has also decided to abolish the regime of the President of the Republic.
Could have done better for health and social security: retire.
In 1982, an ordinance instituted retirement at 60, for 150 quarters (37.5 years) of contributions, at the full rate of 50% of the average annual salary.
It was the good old days !
In a few weeks of 1993, Édouard Balladur tackled pensions in the private sector: the contribution period for full-rate retirement rose to 160 quarters (40 years), with a discount of 2.5% per missing quarter. The pension, calculated over the best 10 years, progressively over the 25 years, is no longer indexed to wages but to inflation.
How to separate active and retired workers.
The new world on the move (La République en marche) follows the old pattern of unraveling.
É. Philippe: current retirees will not be affected by the reform. Understood by people aged 65 and over, the only age group which, at 49%, supports the project. Also supported by executives / intellectual professions above 55% against 27% of intermediate professions, 19% of employees and 16% of workers (2).
Today, under the general regime, the legal retirement age is 62. In practice, workers leave full rate at 63.3 years after 41.3 years of activity and the amount is calculated over the best twenty-five years.
To push for its reform, the government puts forward two strong arguments: abolish special regimes, create an universal and just regime.
Communication is closer to advertising than to the truth.
The government counts 42 special regimesalongside the General Regime, the Mutualité sociale agricole, the Social Security of the self-employed. In the special regimes, 3 groups: civil service (civil and military officials), companies and public establishments, other regimes around a profession or a company.
The Labor Code (code du travail) recognizes 10 special regimes with 418,776 contributors, 1.4% of the active population, and 930,277 pensioners, according to estimates by the Social Security Accounts Commission for 2019. By integrating civil service and regimes assimilated to regimes special, this total climbs to 4.7 million contributors, or 15.7% of the working population, and 4.3 million beneficiaries (3).
The Ministry of Health and Solidarities puts 11 regimes on the list fixed by decree in December 2014.
In its annual reports, Social Security (Séccurité sociale) estimates that there are 13 special and assimilated regimes but does not take into account civil servants, sometimes integrated into special regimes.
In front of this historical diversity, incomprehensible to ordinary people but the fruit of past struggles, Macron speaks of a universal, egalitarian system.
Beyond the intention and over the declarations, the complexity of the situations makes it necessary to adapt to social realities and the balances of power that multiplies the initial, unique model. De Gaulle, more modest, ruled the country of 258 varieties of cheese…
If a Macron reform is successful, there will be a diversity of 10, 11, 13 or 42, with two points in common: tougher conditions for access to retirement and reduction in pensions.
All, progressive to be less confrontational …
Liberation has published a list of special plans with the number of contributors and pensioners… (appendix 1)
To stay quantitative, contributors / pensioners, a few examples show strong differences. To this should be added the diversity of methods: rate, duration of contribution, pension level, etc.
The current conflict mainly affects: 2,058,000 civil servants and contributing military personnel for 2,355,000 pensioners; 2,223,000 territorial and hospital officials for 1,155,000 pensioners; 143,000 contributors to SNCF in 2017, 261,000 beneficiaries
Conversely, some plans have a few dozen contributors or pensioners and are in the process of disappearing: the last beneficiary of the Hérault railways fund died in 2017.
The candidate Macron’s program in 2017
Macron proposed an universal pension system where an euro contributed would give the same rights, regardless of when it was paid, regardless of the status of the contributor … without affecting the retirement age, in pensions and the pay-as-you-go system (système par répartition).
Behind this announced simplicity, the reform must take into account many specific cases: caregivers, family situations, life accidents, unemployment, hardship … In total, 132 pages by Jean-Paul Delevoye, to present his proposals, without responding to all questions (4).
The government project
Behind the declarations, simplification, justice, universality, appeared the idea of the government, especially of Edouard Philippe, the pivot point at 64 years because the increase in life expectancy would involve the need to increase the years of work .
Which has not been the case until recently.
É. Philippe does not hide the financial nature of this point: it will be up to the steering body of the future system, made up of union and employer representatives, to chart the way to financially balance the system in 2027. So according to his agenda: age of balance, 62 years and 4 months in 2022, 64 years in 2027 to clear the deficit. With the possibility of retiring earlier with a reduced pension (penalty) or later with a bonus.
Objective, more than 3 billion euros in savings in 3 years (5).
The pension system has a variable deficit: 2.9 billion euros in 2018, 0.1% of gross domestic product (GDP), according to the Orientation Council for Pensions (COR). According to another report, the deficit could reach 7.9 to 17.2 billion euros in 2025. But spending on pensions should remain stable between 2018 and 2030, from 13.5% to 14% of GDP.
Revenue and expenses
The increase in life expectancy, in number of elderly people and in number of retirees are facts. Revenue and spending on retirees are choices. To obtain their balance, one can increase or decrease expenses and / or receipts.
Discreetly, successive governments have decided to reduce revenues by exempting certain social contributions, reducing public services …
Amputated revenues, it is proclaimed the deficit and to restore balance, reduce spending is necessary by a new method of calculating pensions including the famous point or the number of retirees by raising the retirement age …
The question of increasing revenues will not be asked. However it is possible: by fixing the same rate of levy to all, which is not the case for high incomes (6), by taxing capital income, by aligning the wages of women on those of men, by regularizing undocumented workers, by fighting against illegal work which would remove unfair competition … but we reduce the number of labor inspectors…
All measures that would increase the return of contributions.
Especially by reducing the number of unemployed, the main plague of society: we prefer overtime work, without social security contributions, the lengthening of the working years, instead of favoring the distribution of work.
Work less to work all?
The choice is made: reduce expenses when the number of elderly people increases! It can only be by reducing the amount of pensions and the number of pensioners!
É. Philippe is committed: when converting points into a pension when an active person retires, a contributed point will always be worth an amount equal to or greater (but not less) than the basic amount entered in the reform (7). Even if inflation is galloping? How will Philippe be able to keep his word in a year, two years … if another government passes a law that contradicts its promise?
Those who retire at the pivotal age will receive a pension calculated on the normal value of the retirement point. For those who leave before, the value of the point will be reduced, for those who leave after, the point will be improved in the same proportions, X% per year… (7).
Another encouragement to work more at the expense of those who cannot find a job.
It revolves a lot around the pivot!
After proclaiming, loud and clear, that it is going to unify the pension systems, the government must adjust the pivotal age according to certain criteria and … power relations.
The Minister of the Interior has already made derogatory promises to his troops who support him as the rope supports the hanged man… after the defection of 3 CRS companies during a Parisian demonstration … He announced the maintenance of the advantages of special police regime … the retirement age (52 for men in uniform and 57 for commissioners) and retirement calculated like everyone else, over the entire career but including all bonuses … resulting in pensions equivalent to those of today. But following a declaration by Macron ensuring that the military maintained their regime, the police demanded a future pension plan aligned with that of the gendarmes, which was more advantageous (8).
Like what, the fight pays especially that of the police, essential to an austerity government which handles austerity and stick.
The bonuses would also be included in the calculation of pensions for public sector employees. Compensation for those who receive it: 20% of the remuneration but varies greatly from one agent to another. Those who receive little or no bonus have a lot to lose, especially teachers (9). For them, it is the salary that would be highly upgraded.
In addition, a bonus of 5% retirement points will be granted for each child from the first and another 2% for families of 3 or more children (10).
Bonuses could also be granted depending on the arduous nature of the work (11). Despite Macron’s class contempt for whom far too many French people have no sense of effort. And who does not love the word of arduousness because it gives the feeling that work is painful !!!
However, courageous, Jean-François Cesarini, former socialist, deputy of LREM, and humorist (dark), proposes, for the teachers, a weighting linked to suicides by job, which proves the painfulness.
Bad idea for J-M. Blanquer (minister of Education) because the average suicide in Education (5.85 per 100,000) is far below the national average, or 16 people per 100,000 in 2012 (12).
Will farmers get this hardship bonus? The 2014 ONS report reported their excess mortality by suicide, more than 20% above the national average, with approximately one suicide every 2 days (13).
The increase in life expectancy is, for the government, an argument in favor of a later retirement. No for its modulation! Jean-François Cesarini could have used it as a criterion. It is, perhaps, unwelcome for a ex-socialist now LREM. At 35, the life expectancy of a worker is more than 6 years lower than that of a manager according to INSEE, average between 2009 and 2013 (14).
Shouldn’t that be taken into account for retirement age?
Better still life expectancy in good health: number of years that a person can expect to live without suffering from incapacity in the gestures of daily life. In 2016, it was 64.1 years for women and 62.7 years for men according to the DREES (Direction de la Recherche, des études, de l’évaluation et des statistiques) (15).
Life expectancy, without sensory and physical problems, for managers 35 years old is 34 years (35 +34 = 69), for workers, 24 years (35 +24 = 59). The majority of workers are in poor health before they even reach the pivotal age! Managers live longer, healthier, have higher and longer pensions (16).
The pivotal age of financial equilibrium seems more telling for the government than the pivotal age of human equilibrium!There has been talk of the dangerousness of certain trades, and workplace accidents? In 2018, 651,103 accidents, 2.9% more than in 2017: including 551 fatal in 2018, 530 in 2017, not including farmers, self-employed workers, civil servants. No one will be surprised that their frequency is higher in construction and public works, 73.2 per 1,000 employees, then sailors, 64.8, than in banks, insurance and administrations, 9.9 per 1000.
The fatality rate for occupational accidents among seafarers is the highest, 0.461 per 1000 seafarers and 0.748 per 1000 fishermen. Risk 5 times higher, 8 times for fishermen, than in the construction industry with 0.093 per 1000 employees and 15.6 times higher than in all professional sectors combined with 0.0295 per 1000 (17).
Of course, other professions are also at risk: pruners, roofers, the steel industry, garbage collectors … (18).
The Prime Minister was anxious to reassure the military, the police and hospital workers, by undertaking that the arduousness of their profession is indeed a criterion in the calculation of their pension (19).
What can sailors, pruners, openers … and everyone else do to make themselves heard?
|Macron’s motivations in this reform are multiple President of wealthy|
He canceled the financial wealth tax to favor, without much success, in the financing of French companies. It prepares the enrichment of the most favored by opening the market for future complementary pensions to pension and investment funds. And the assurances as long requested by those who have clearly stated that they want to destroy the social benefits of the Liberation? Against intermediate bodies
Trade unions. One could think that he was going to play on the break between the reformers of Laurent Berger and the CFDT … and others in favor of retirement on points and help the CGT … in his loss of influence. By maintaining his support for the pivot that was not in his project, he has acted, so far, his refusal of the outstretched hand of Laurent Berger, a supporter of the Macron reform (points), opposed to the Philippe reform (pivot). Does he think that the moment is favorable for him that he can go further and mount public opinion against all unions? Does he want to be the French Thatcher? He thinks he has overcome the GJ (gilets jaunes) by the use of force, the most important since the war in Algeria, with the damage that we know, does he hope to succeed in opposing the population to the privileges and the nuisance of strikers with the help of the major news media? Macron and the European Union.
Rid of the social question, he will finally join the group of good pupils of European liberalism. With a fragmented opposition, the next presidential election is likely to be very similar to the previous one. It will then be able to play an important role on another scale as the United Kingdom engages in Brexit and when Germany loses its international weight with the departure of Merkel and the rise of the populist of the far right. 1 – Analyse retraites, excellent four pages by the strikers of Insee. https://tendanceclaire.org/contenu/autre/Analyse_Retraites_Comite_mobilisation_Insee.pdf
2 – https://elabe.fr/reforme-retraite-septembre2019/
3 – https://www.lesechos.fr/economie-france/social/retraite-les-regimes-speciaux-en-quatre-graphiques-1153152
4 – Le Monde 12/12/19
5 – Le Monde 13/12/19
6 – Le Monde 12/12/19
7 – Le Monde 21/12/19
8 – Le Figaro 22/12/19
9 – Le Monde 12/12/19
10 – Le Monde 12/12/19
11 – JDD 13/12/19
12 – Ouest-france 08/11/19
13 – Le Monde 03/02/16
14 – https://www.inegalites.fr/Les-inegalites-d-esperance-de-vie-entre-les-categories-sociales-se-maintiennent?id_theme=19
15 – Le Monde 19/02/19
16 – https://www.inegalites.fr/Les-inegalites-d-esperance-de-vie-entre-les-categories-sociales-se-maintiennent?id_theme=19
17 – http://actualites-nautiques.com/marin-le-metier-le-plus-dangereux-au-monde/
18 – Reconversion 13/11/19https://www.reconversionprofessionnelle.org/metier-dangereux/
19 – Le Monde 21/12/19 Annexe 1 : In France, how many special regimes and how many recipients Luc Peillon, Libération, 24/09/19