Women’s long struggle for equality (2)

La longue lutte des Femmes pour l’égalité (2)

Taking the opposite view of Albert Einstein, some people, in favor of authorizing ethnic statistics, say that which is not cunted does not count (1). Statistics, beyond the equality proclaimed, make it possible to show the gender inequalities in the facts and the slow progress towards equality in different domains.

Politically. The proportion of women in the European Parliament is gradually increasing from 16.6% in 1979-84 to 36.6% in 2014-19. This proportion varies from one country to another, at the lowest, in Poland, Hungary, Slovakia and Bulgaria (respectively 17.7%, 19.1%, 23.1% and 23.5% of European women deputies). ), Sweden and Finland (55% and 53.9%). France is with 43.2% is in fifth place (2).

« Toute l’Europe » published, in September 2017, information on the proportion of women in national parliaments, the lower house only (in France, Assemblée nationale). Again, Sweden and Finland top the table with respectively 43.6% and 42% women Members of Parliament, Spain comes in third (39.1%). But these countries are only, respectively, 6th, 9th and 14th in the world ranking. At the bottom of the table are Latvia (16%), Malta (11.9%) and Hungary (10.1%). With 38.8% of women deputies, France comes fourth (3).

In France, the proportion of women in the Senate is lower than in the Assemblée nationale: 31.8%. However, it has been steadily increasing since 2001 (Table 1)

Table 1: Number and Percentage of Women in the Senate (4)

Election

Number

Percentage

2001

35

10,9 %

2004

60

18,1 %

2008

75

21,9 %

2011

77

22,10%

2014

87

25,0 %

2017

110

31,80%

Regarding the ministerial posts, for the 28 States of the Union, the proportion of women is only 25%. On the first of July 2017, two countries have more female ministers than male ministers: France (58%, excluding secretaries of state) and Sweden (52%), followed by Slovenia (44%). At the bottom of the table, Malta and Slovakia (14%) and Cyprus and Hungary who have no women at the head of a ministry (5).

After the last cabinet reshuffle, the French government, consisting of the Prime Minister, is made up of 20 ministers, 11 women and 9 men, and 12 secretaries of state, 7 men and 5 women, ie 32 posts equally distributed.

If inequalities slowly fade at the level of deputies and ministers, we are still far from the mark in certain functions. Despite the parity law of June 2000, 83% of outgoing mayors in 2014 were men (6) and 87% of the top of the 2014 municipal elections (7).

La longue lutte des Femmes pour l’égalité (2)

he situation is evolving even more slowly at the social and economic level.

In the European Union, the average wage gap between men and women, which was 17% in 2012, increased to 16.7 in 2014 and 16.3 in 2015. However, depending on the country, this difference varies from 5.5 to 26.9%. In Italy and Luxembourg (5.5%), Romania (5.8%), Poland (7.7%) and Slovenia (8.1%) the gaps are the lowest, the largest are Estonia (26.9%), the Czech Republic (22.5%), Germany (22%), Austria (21.7%) and the United Kingdom (20.8%).
France is in the middle of the table with 15.8% (8).

In France, entrepreneurs are mostly men: 60% of autoentrepreneurs, 75% of managers of limited liability companies and 83% of salaried managers of other companies, according to INSEE (9). The proportion of women decreases as the size of the enterprise increases: 37% of people working alone in their company, 28% in companies with 2 to 4 people, 16% in companies with 20 to 49 people and 14% in companies with businesses with 50 or more people. They are fewer in these positions and earn less: 31% less than men. What INSEE explains by fewer hours worked over the year (10)

Alternatives économiques examines the proportion of women and men who have a managerial position based on their academic background (Table 2).

Table 2: Percentage of women and men framework according to the diplomas

Niveau

% women managerial staff

% men managerial staff

Bac+2

8,6

23,4

Bac+3 ou plus

35,9

62,2

At the equivalent level, the employment rate of women is lower than that of men and women are less often managers than men. In total, men’s incomes are more than 30% higher than those of women at all levels of education and even reach 46% for holders of Bac + 3 and above. These inequalities appear from the beginning of the professional activities and increase thereafter: which means lower income for women by 25% compared to men at 25 and 64% at 65 (11)! For the positions of CEO, if we believe LeFigaro, things do not seem to improve. In 2015, just under one in five companies changed CEOs globally, the highest rate in 16 years. On this occasion, of the 359 new appointments, 10 were women, or 3% (12).

In terms of wages and employment, the road to gender equality will be long.

La longue lutte des Femmes pour l’égalité (2)
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