Référendum d’initiative partagée (Referendum of shared initiative) or requiescat in pace

Référendum d'initiative partagée  ou  requiescat in pace

At the request of parliamentarians, deputies and senators, and after consultation with the Constitutional Council, the government had to put in place the collection of signatures in favor of a possible referendum on the privatization of Aéroports de Paris.

The procedure of the referendum of initiative shared (RIP), established in 2008, is activated for the first time, on April 10, 2019: 248 deputies and senators (the law demands at least a fifth of the parliamentarians) of the opposition, communists, rebellious, republican, socialist, submit a bill for the group Aéroports de Paris (ADP) is considered a public service. On May 9, the Constitutional Council judges that the required conditions are respected and fixes the number of necessary supports to 4,717,396. The Ministry of the Interior opens the online platform to collect support for the bill whose collection is open until March 12, 2020 (1)(Referendum.intérieur.gouv.fr).

With modalities such as the first candidates to support the petition, probably the most motivated, have often had to do it several times! How many citizens have given up or will give up during registration?

The signature can be done also in some town halls. In each canton, the most populated municipality has been mandated to register them. It is therefore necessary to sign the petition by internet, either to go to the town hall of the town or to another town hall of the canton !! Additional barriers to support.

This petition is intended to support the organization of a referendum for or against the privatization of ADP.  Indeed, if the necessary number of signatories is reached, the National Assembly and the Senate will have six months to consider or not the proposal. If neither chamber examines the text, the President of the Republic must hold a referendum for or against privatization.


But if one or both Houses take the text, whatever they do, there will be no RIP. Given the government’s overwhelming majority in the National Assembly, it will be easy for it to put the proposal on the agenda and block the referendum and popular debate on privatization.

The government’s bad faith is focused on the democratic and political nature of the process. It wants to prevent any possibility of direct decision-making by the French people.

Référendum d'initiative partagée  ou  requiescat in pace

The RIP is a perfect demonstration of the democratic nature of the Republic: it must remain in its constitutional box. With even the intention proclaimed by the candidate Macron to facilitate its use (2). But fiercely attacked by his government and its supports from the announcement of a beginning of procedure: the Republic, at least the representative democracy, would be in danger if one applied a constitutional law put in place by the Parliament and whose procedure is triggered by parliamentarians !!!

If the RIP can not be applied without risk for the representative democracy, it is useless to speak about the RIC, referendum of citizen initiative wanted by the Gilets Jaunes ! The Giets Jaunes (Vests yellow) can not be deluded on the question: the RIC will not see the day …

The bad will of the government is explained. Some of its decisions, automatically endorsed by a National Assembly with orders, could be challenged by a RIP on the initiative of some parliamentarians.

What is much more surprising is the silence of the groups and parliamentarians who are behind this petition.

How many public meetings? How many collectives? How many leaflets? How many posters have been organized, published, broadcast? What made the interest of the 2005 referendum is not only the result, which was despised by parliamentarians. It is above all the popular mobilization which has been of political value and which has allowed the understanding of the Draft European Constitution, and its rejection by very many citizens.

Those who govern have learned the lesson. This profound movement of concrete democracy must not happen again.  Politicians and the media have understood that it is easier to amuse voters with policy-related issues like doping with sportsmen or with rivalry between candidates as they do for a sporting event.  If the candidate, once elected, does exactly the opposite of what he announced, there is no possible recourse for the fooled citizen.

It is not the same for a text that everyone can read, explain, dissect, publicly or in small groups. And refuse.

Référendum d'initiative partagée  ou  requiescat in pace
Référendum d'initiative partagée  ou  requiescat in pace

French democracy, like many others, is the power given to the oligarchs, the competents. Who know what is good for all. In their eyes, the people are competent to elect, freely, one of their interchangeable candidates. It is no longer able to read, discuss, understand a text and determine essentially according to this text. To vote after a real debate.
Emmanuel Macron does not hide his game. He has shown what he means by A Great National Debate.


The petition launched, the number of signatures obtained can have a considerable impact. It would be a serious political mistake to neglect to participate. It can change the ratio of political forces.
If the signatures are few, it will support Emmanuel Macron in the idea that he has carte blanche to continue his austere policy. Not only the privatization of ADP or any other nuclear company to hydroelectric dams but its liberal policy of destroying the state and social laws. As he already did for the labor code.
A successful petition will not necessarily stop the privatization of ADP. The procedure can be blocked at the level of the National Assembly. But a very large number of signatures, despite the governmental obstacles, will change the balance of power. Already, the battle of the Gilets Jaunes, even if they have not obtained satisfaction on everything – just think of the ISF (wealth tax) or the APL – requires Emmanuel Macron to be less brave and hold his whip …

The petition can show him that he can not always override the will of the people, that he simply has the choice to submit his policy to the judgment of the people that can be done by referendum or by …. new yellow, red, green or rainbow vests …

From this perspective, it is extremely desirable that collectives set themselves up to multiply signatures. The debate is important. It is not about the privatization of ADP alone or …

But on the possibility for citizens to take control of some of the power and to facilitate the realization that we can not leave in place a person who only defends the interests of some! Do not sign the petition, it is not only to take a stand for the privatization of ADP, it is to vote against the practice of the RIP, it is to leave the hands free to Macron.

Référendum d'initiative partagée  ou  requiescat in pace

The result would be terrible for Macron if millions of citizens claimed a real debate. The defeat would be terrible if the 4 million signatures were not obtained regardless of the maneuvers undertaken to limit the mobilization.

If the number of necessary signatures is not obtained, it means a wide avenue open to Emmanuel Macron on privatizations and not only …

The RIP will be able to rest in peace in the texts. The citizens will have been voted out. How will they react? What color will the next vests be?

Référendum d'initiative partagée  ou  requiescat in pace
Référendum d'initiative partagée  ou  requiescat in pace

1 – The citizen who wants to support the petition must, with his identity and elector cards , complete a questionnaire on his civil status. It should mention the information as it is written on his cards including all the first names.  The collection officially ends on March 12, 2020 at midnight. For now, the pace of collection of signatures is largely insufficient to obtain the number needed for success. See adprip.fr website


2 – On April 25, President Macron says he wants to « go further » on the RIP « by simplifying the rules, allowing the initiative can come from citizens, a million citizens who would sign a petition and that it can prosper in draft law and if it was not examined by the assemblies, go to the referendum « (L’Express 16/05/19).

Référendum d'initiative partagée  ou  requiescat in pace
Publicités

Yellow, dream or nightmare ?

Jaune, rêve ou cauchemar ?

The French people and its government have yellow in common, dreaming for some, a nightmare for others.

Even the trees start to yellow early, and the lawns …
And François de Rugy who, after his yellow card makes amends, refunds the excess drinks of his guests, and replaces the champagne bubbles by the yellow pastis, less « people » and more « peuple », much cheaper. As well for François de Rugy as for the taxpayers.

Jaune, rêve ou cauchemar ?
Jaune, rêve ou cauchemar ?

The fans have eyes only for the yellow victorious Gilets jaunes(1), certainly expensive suffering, and the yellow victorious Maillot jaune at the Rond-Point (des Champs Elysées) or on the Champs (Elysées)…
Alone, Emmanuel Macron laughs yellow (2) in his Palace before crossing the street to go, fear in the stomach (1), shake the hand of people for whom it is a great honor to be in yellow (3).


Maillot jaune ? Gilets jaunes ?

Jaune, rêve ou cauchemar ?
Jaune, rêve ou cauchemar ?
Jaune, rêve ou cauchemar ?

1 – Les braises de la crise des gilets jaunes couvent toujours et… quelques milliards d’euros ne suffiront pas à apaiser le pays assure l’un des ministres présents. Le Président nous a dit de partir en vacances la peur au ventre. Le Monde 23/07/19

2 – Un humoriste c’est un philosophe qui rit jaune. (Émile Coderre). Emmanuel Macron est-il un philosophe ? Un humoriste ?

3 – Julian Alaphilippe

Jaune, rêve ou cauchemar ?
Jaune, rêve ou cauchemar ?
Jaune, rêve ou cauchemar ?
Jaune, rêve ou cauchemar ?
Jaune, rêve ou cauchemar ?

4 – The yellow is also  » Atelier des Lumières Van Gogh, la nuit étoilée, must be seen in Paris.

Jaune, rêve ou cauchemar ?

About the clash of civilizations

A propos du choc des civilisations

The fall of the Berlin Wall and the collapse of the USSR, good news, triumph of the Western world, seen from the West … universal peace, eternal ….
Some thought that the story would end the day when a consensus on liberal democracy and the market would put an end to the conflicts: end of the ideologies, end of the history, end of the conflicts …

Twenty years of peace after the first world war? Seventy after the second? Periods of peace, in fact no direct war between the great Western powers and under the constant threat of a clash between them grouped around the United States and the Soviet Union and its allies! It was easy to forget the continuity of the many armed conflicts, perhaps exotic or local for those who led or benefited them but not for those who suffered them: civil wars or internal guerrillas, colonial conquests and anticolonial armed struggles, border disputes, external interventions of great powers. Just type wars or conflicts in the 20th century on a search engine to find a long list on wikipedia, unfinished …

The Soviet Union, empire of evil, according to Ronald Reagan, barely gone, here is the great Satan, Islam, and the clash of civilizations promoted new sources of conflict. This time, the West chooses Islam as the main subject of confrontation. Relegating to the background – for the moment? – China or other social, economic or political realities, just as conflicting ..

The last two world conflicts were triggered by European powers. It is not sure that they can have such a bad role in the future. Describing Islam as the main enemy, in different forms such as the Taliban, El Qaeda, Islamic State, Iran, … the United States take an option for a possible relay …

Some European states are committed and want to involve the European Union in this change of perspective.

Yesterday, under the tutelage of the United States and against the Soviet Union, European states, 6, 9, 12 … have tried to unite to avoid new conflicts between them, homogenize their economic and social situation and constitute a relative power against the USSR.
 This union has, in the eyes of some, the great merit of having ensured more than half a century of peace. Peace in Europe probably due more to the balance of terror between the United States of America (US) and the USSR. But not on the outside wars in which France took a large part of Indochina (1946-54) to Algeria (1954-62) or Portugal in Angola (1961-75), Guinea ( 1953-74) or Mozambique (1964-75) … While noting that the Franco-Israeli-British expedition during the nationalization of the Suez Canal (1956-57) was interrupted under international pressure (USA, USSR) and not European countries. And currently, the intervention of European states, especially France, in the Sahel … Not to mention small local conflicts in Europe: Slovenia (1991), Croatia (1991-93) Yugoslavia (1991-2001), Bosnia (1992-95) , Kosovo (1998-99) and the unfortunate Franco-British initiative in Libya (2011) …

Following the lead of the United States, a number of Europeans today want to build a Europe no longer in the name of democraty (in the face of the Soviet Union) but in the name of European civilization (facing the Muslim world). As for building national unity, nothing better than to find a common external enemy to try to achieve an European unity and especially the difficult European Union, while giving it a new internal orientation.

In the context of the confrontation with the USSR, it was necessary to value democracy as opposed to the Soviet dictatorship and social democracy so that the workers do not join en masse the powerful communist parties. The communist danger passed, it is possible to assume the austeritaire nature of capitalism: austerity and authoritarianism. President Macron is the incarnation obvious now: counter-economic-social reform, the Communist Party has disappeared, the left is not dangerous, more energetic repression, satisfactory for the right …

The confrontation with Islam as religion, Islam as civilization, often difficult to differentiate in the speeches implies to redefine Europe. No longer as a state or a group of states, democratic in the face of one or more undemocratic states, threatening, like the Soviet Union yesterday, but the European civilization which is no longer necessarily democratic, like the illiberal democracy of Viktor Orbán but identity, white, Christian. And even Judeo-Christian, recently. Faced with the Arab-Muslim world, which may justify the search for an alliance with Israel, some anti-Semitic parties or states. And promote a common anti-immigration policy, of African or Asian origin, sometimes colored and Muslim.

With a touch of national identity sovereignty, which today allows alliances within the European Union but can become factors of nationalist disunity and confrontation.

Faced with the first conception of Europe, capitalist and pro-Atlantic, the left opposed its will to another Europe, social or even socialist, neutral, denouncing, while benefiting, the US nuclear umbrella.

In the clash of civilizations, a certain left wing starts from an old principle: if the right says the United Kingdom is an island, the left must assert the United Kingdom is not an island. Rather than thinking about the concrete situation and building a bridge … As the right speaks of shock or war of civilizations, for them, there is no shock or war of civilizations.
  Indians in the Americas do not have to agree absolutely. Which have been virtually exterminated, physically or culturally. Like all the colonized peoples …

Another way of challenging the clash of civilizations is to show, especially when talking about Muslim countries, that there is no Muslim world, that Muslims are very divided. The Muslims are not, mainly, Arab, are divided in multiple currents, Sunnism, Shiism, kharidjisme, with, in addition, a division into nations, for some more operational than the preceding ones. Moreover, some surveys can show that what concerns Muslims in general is not to confront, to invade, to conquer, to convert non-Muslims.
  All this does not seem questionable.

One can argue, exactly the same thing for Westerners. The Christian world is equally divided: not all Christians are white, they are not only Europeans, there are many currents, Catholic, Protestant, Orthodox, Anglicans …, not to mention those, more and more who say they have no religion. And there is no doubt that the fundamental preoccupations of the majority of Western peoples is not, never was to convert, colonize … the rest of the world.

Unfortunately, the people were trained yesterday and can be trained tomorrow, to participate, willingly or by force, in wars that the majority disapproved or disapproves.

A propos du choc des civilisations
A propos du choc des civilisations

To avoid the renewal of deadly clashes, it is useful to demonstrate the heterogeneity of each other, to show the diversity of interests within these large, supposedly homogeneous masses and to denounce why some push others to kill…
But this is not enough. It is necessary to fight the warring parties on both sides who exploit the clash of civilizations, to build bridges between the two camps, whose well-understood interest is not confrontation but dialogue and exchange.

The battle does not oppose Muslim religion / Muslim civilization and Christian religion / Christian or Western civilization. Despite a long history of conflict. But those who, in each camp, defend the universal values of justice, democracy, equality and those who, in each camp, try to use the differences to perpetuate their power, their domination.
The list is long of peoples who have risen in both camps for more freedom, equality, democracy. Who found in front of them their traditional masters who had the political, economic, financial, military support of the masters of the opposing camp.

A propos du choc des civilisations

The clash of civilizations based on religions is only the new formulation of identity shocks that have always existed on different scales and often at the root of violent conflicts: nations, regions (small nations), religious obediences (yesterday Catholics and Protestants here and there, Sunnites and Shiites today) and that we can even find within current societies, struggle of communities ….

Should we theorize, amplify these struggles?

A propos du choc des civilisations
A propos du choc des civilisations

Cinema found again in Bologna

Cinéma retrouvé à Bologne


At the XXXIII edition of the cinema ritrovato, cinema found again (Bologna, June 22-30), more than 400 films of 250 directors were presented in 6 rooms and, in the evening, in Piazza maggiore.
Hence an embarrassment and frustration at the moment of choice when we can only see a few tens …

These films were made between 1896 and 2018: short films of a few seconds from the beginning of the cinema (including 41 of the year 1919, centenary obliges), first hand-colored films, films in technicolor, recent feature films, sometimes more three hours on widescreen.  All presented in a catalog of 400 pages.

The films were grouped according to different criteria: ritrovati e restaurati (found again and restored), actors (Jean Gabin), directors (Henry King, Filippo Edouardo, Youssef Chahine, Keaton Buster, Felix E.Feist, George Franju, Musidora), country (USSR, South Korea, West Germany), years (1899, 1919), types of films (documentaries, cinemalibero) …

Some films were presented in Italian or English with translation, sometimes in French, before the screening. In addition, eleven lezioni di cinema (masterclass) including Bertand Tavernier on the great composers, especially French, of music of film and Thierry Frémaux …††

Cinéma retrouvé à Bologne

Bertrand Tavernier and Gian Luca Farinelli, director of Cineteca di Bologna and Cinema ritrovato

In this film abundance, some remarks, arbitrary. Two Italian films, Napolitani a Milano by Eduardo de Filippo (98mn, 1953) were presented in theaters and, in Piazza Maggiore, Miraculo a Milano by Vittorio de Sica (100mn, 1951). Which relate to similar situations: confrontation of badly housed people and speculators real estate. But while Napolitano a Milano deals with the question in the classic Italian neo-realistic style, with Miraculo a Milano, Vittorio de Sica and Cesare Zavattini (scriptwriter), continue this vein and go beyond it, by a wonderful tale with a great imagination at the level of the scenario that announces the Italian comedy. Imagination served by technical feats. All this justifies the thousands of spectators who came to the Piazza Maggiore to cheer a film, in black and white, made 56 years ago !!!

From the same period, in Technicolor, Moulin Rouge (120mn, 1952) by John Houston and Gigi (115mn, 1958) by Vincente Minelli, films by American directors about the Belle Epoque in Paris. Moulin Rouge whose central character is the painter Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, the drama of his life and those he paints, who live around him. Gigi presents only the superficial aspect of this era with the help of a Maurice Chevalier, equal to himself, the French seducer with a queasy and satisfied smile …  Two films that on the same Belle Epoque, one above ground, the other still more beautiful with the description of this same society but which does not forget the social reality on which it rests. †

Cinéma retrouvé à Bologne
Cinéma retrouvé à Bologne
Cinéma retrouvé à Bologne

Exhibition of paintings by Silvano Campeggi at the Bologna Library

Several films for a tribute to Jean Gabin including a biography (Un Français), nommé Gabin (104mn, 2017) by Yves Jeuland, illustrated with extracts from 50 of his 95 films, remarkable for the fans of Jean Gabin. But also 8 films, with Jean Gabin actor. From Pepe the Moko by Julien Duvivier (94mn, France, 1936), En cas de malheur by Claude Autant-Lara (121mn, France, 1957) that allow to see Jean Gabin before he becomes the caricature of himself. In these films, if Jean Gabin has the leading role, he does not always have the best: Pépé le Moko, a caïd locked up in the Kasbah of Algiers comes out, by love, only to get caught; En cas de malheur, respectable lawyer, he is dragged into his fall by a Brigitte Bardot who is the pawn; Coeur de lilas by Anatol Litvak (90mn, France, 1931), little caïd, he pushes the ditty and receives a good correction (Fernandel, as a singer) … Au delà des grilles by René Clément (104mn, France- Italy, 1948), he arrives in Genoa, at the end of the race, without being able to rebuild his life …

The plot of these films describes the atmosphere of a small French town or district of Paris, Du haut en bas by GW Pabst (80mn, France, 1933), and the films often inspired by novels by Georges Simenon : La Marie du port by Marcel Carné port (97mn, France, 1949), Maigret tend un piège by Jean Delanoy (119mn, France, 1957), Le Chat by Pierre Granier-Deferre (86mn, France-Italy, 1970).  With Le Chat, the death of a couple and a neighborhood: in a dead end of the suburbs in the middle of the urban reorganization, Gabin has affection only for his cat and no longer corresponds with his wife (Simone Signoret) that by small papers … Le Chat is the first victim but the couple goes out in a neighborhood that disappears … ††††††

Cinéma retrouvé à Bologne

Apart from Jean Gabin, several tributes were paid to women.  Musidora, la dixième muse by Patrick Cazals (65mn, France, 2013) with an exhibition on Musidora, she was producer, war godmother of French aviation soldiers, essayist, novelist, actress, singer, variety artist, archivist of the Cinémathèque française, actress for Germaine Dulac, Louis Feuillade, Jacques Feyder, George Franju and director (Pour Don Carlos with Lasseyne, 1921, Soleil et ombre by Lasseyne, 1922, La Tierra de los Torros, 1924).

La passione di Ana Magnani by Enrico Cerasiolo (60mn, Italie, 2019).

Essere Done by Cécilia Mangini (28mn, Italie, 1964), documentary on the status of women

Segretarie, una Vita per il cinema by Raffaele Rago et Daniela Masciale (64 mn, Italie, 2017),
series of interviews with secretaries of great masters of Italian cinema.

The restored films, Bologna is an important world center of film restoration, some presented in Piazza Maggiore, allow to browse the cinema and its history, masterpieces of cinema and less known films: Charlie Chaplin’s Circus (71mn, United States, 1928) where Charlot is pursued by a policeman in a mirrors galerie, a sequence often taken up in the cinema, especially by Orson Welles in the Lady of Shanghai; The Cameraman by Buster Keaton (69mn, United States, 1928); Toni by Jean Renoir, first passion of an immigrant on the French screens (91mn, France, 1935); Under capricorn by Alfred Hitchcock (117 mn, United States, 1949); Los olvidados by Luis Bunuel (81 minutes, Mexico, 1950); L’eau à la bouche by Jacques Doniol-Valcroze with the couple Bernadette Lafont and Michel Galabru, music Serge Gainsbourg (95mn, France, 1950); Les Bicots-Nègres, Vos voisins of Med Hondo despite a somewhat dated speech (100mn, Mauritania-France, 1974); Jane Campion’s Piano (121mn, New Zealand-Australia-France, 1993) …

In Piazza Maggiore, Apocalypse Now, with a presentation by Francis Ford Coppola, had a triumph: the film had to be screened at the same time in two cinemas in the city! This film was too long according to Coppola, initially 4 hours, was reduced to 3 hours, for its release in room, at the request of producers. This is the last version (final cut), 183 minutes that was presented in Bologna.

Apocalypse Now, with multiple awards, won the Palme d’Or in Cannes, in 1979. Designed during the Vietnam War, on and against the war. Where the heroes, fascination by the war, complex, confusion in the war, remain American individuals, against the anonymous Vietnamese people …

As Gian Luca Farinelli, director of the Cinetca di Bologna and the Cinema Ritrovato festival and Thierry Frémaux did during a lezione di cinema, in his speech, Francis Ford Coppola took a clear position in favor of cinema facing platforms. : true, Apocalypse Now seen on a phone must lose some of its wings …

But the battle continues. Netflix covets the Egyptian Theater, on Hollywood Boulevard, a prestigious cinema built in 1922, to be able to easily fill the conditions of candidacy to the Oscars: broadcast 7 consecutive days the film in a cinema of Los Angeles ..

For Winding Refn (in Bologna for its cult film Drive), digitization is a way to promote the conservation of films: by creating a film museum for future generations … The digital revolution is the third Brother Lumière … with new attention on classical cinema, rather to the detriment of television than cinema.

Cinéma retrouvé à Bologne
Cinéma retrouvé à Bologne
Cinéma retrouvé à Bologne
Cinéma retrouvé à Bologne

Piazza Maggiore, Francis Ford Coppola, program of films screened on Piazza Maggiore from 17 June to 14 August

Algerian impressions

Impressions algériennes

Algerian mpressions, very subjective, without any particular political ambition in this important moment for Algeria, following a 3-week flash trip to Algeria (late February-early March), after having lived from June 1963 to June 1972 and made a brief visit a few years later …
Friendly and touristic visit: a few days in Tamanrasset, Algiers and Tipaza, Arzew-Oran with getaways in Mostaganem and Tlemcen finally Constantine via Djemila.


Nostalgic retreat of places. The people known at that time have disappeared or been lost sight of outside the two friends of fifty, since 1964-65, who welcomed us into their families. Very partial rediscovery visit of a new, unknown Algeria, at the moment when a new story seems to begin.

Returning to Algeria, after such a long separation, is strange. It is to see a friend we have lost sight of, we find, the same and different, familiar here, changed there, unknown elsewhere.

A country that was known by name, before coming, the places and personalities, become familiar because of the long war that had corresponded to the student years. And Independence came, we discovered the physical reality, traveling the country in all directions, and a little life in the daily work, in accordance with our own professional choices.
A country that was being built, new. A country whose achievements were followed with the same hope of success as nationals.

A country we knew or thought we knew. A country whose complexity we felt with, at the same time, a proximity of language, which allowed the dialogue, the sharing but of which an important part escaped us. Because we were not Algerians. Because we do not speak Arabic, despite weak attempts not encouraged by the Algerian entourage, and even less, the Berber-Tamazight, (Kabyle, Chaoui …).

Impressions algériennes
Impressions algériennes

But the country has changed a lot. Upon arrival, at night, by car from Dar El Beida airport to Ben Aknoun, we hope the Moutonnière, traveled twice a day for 6 years, and we go through the entrance to Los Angeles or any other metropolis. The sheep road is lurking somewhere, on the right, in darkness and memory.
The next day, with the light, we find the familiarity of the center, the Grande poste, the streets Larbi Ben M’hidi, Didouche Mourad, the boulevard Mohamed V, the place of the Emir, the apartment, the cinematheque and we fun to see what has not changed and what has changed …

It will be the same in Constantine, with the Place de la Breche modified (place of November 1st), the Direction départementale de la Santé, the Centre parmédical, the Lycée El Hourrya, the Monument aux morts, the Rhumel and its bridges and its new big bridge, the arcades of the street Abane Ramdane, the place Amirouche (Place de la pyuramide) …

Impressions algériennes
Impressions algériennes

When we return from this trip, some people ask us the same questions about the trip that they or others were asking us in the sixties … And security? You were safe? How were people with you in the street?

Curiously, the answer is the same, today and then: impression of absolute security even if, in Tamanrasset, gendarmes accompanied us to ensure our safety, as foreigners, in the excursions outside the city. And the extreme kindness of people.
 

At the time, the war was over, and for them and for us, almost forgotten. Not erased. We were there because this war had taken place and had marked us. But we were Frenchmen who came to work in the new Algeria.
Today, this era is almost forgotten. The vast majority of the Algerian population was born after our departure. The passage of cooperants in the years after Independence is not known to those we meet in the street. We are probably nostalgic pied-noses for them. And the kindness is the same.
The war in Algeria is over, well done. Well almost.

Because France remains the former colonial power, the present neocolonial power. And as at the time, also remains the refusal of foreign interference (to hear from France). Yesterday proclaimed by the government and today common to the system in place and to those who want to bring it down. Immixtion, for some, manipulation of opponents, for others, support of Bouteflika and the regime.

In the air, a little something has changed. Yesterday, some mutual knowledge-complicity supposed with everyone. With the Algerian friends, a common language, the same language, we shared the same jokes, nationalism and fraternity went hand in hand, because we had a common political past even if it was at very different levels. And a common hope.

Today, our story is no longer common. We slowly moved away. Nationalism has been distilled by fifty years of speech, teaching … without sharing. Without human contact, relativising. And our attention to Algeria was not as intense as during the war …

When a man in his fifties, who speaks perfect French, tells us, during a conversation about schooling and education, that in Algeria there are two languages, Arabic and English, he says two clear things: he asserts an identity, he is Arab (actually Chaouia origin) and Muslim (he asks us soon after what we think of Islam), rejects the officially recognized Tamazight, – language of the division? – and the French language, language of colonialism, still taught and widely used, for the benefit of the English language …

Impressions algériennes
Impressions algériennes
Impressions algériennes

The veil-scarf is in question in France. Here, what strikes when one walks in the streets, it is the total disappearance of the traditional veils which made it possible to distinguish, at the first glance, the Algeroises, Oranaises or Constantinoises, dressed according to the tradition beside those who had adopted Western fashion. Today, women dressed in the Western fashion, mainly in pants, hair in the wind, are numerous. But, in all the cities covered, the most frequent dress is the scarf associated with the long dresses: the traditional veils have completely disappeared! We saw in 3 weeks, a Constantinoise and an Oranaise. And a single integral veil …, coming from the suburbs of Paris said young friends …

This phenomenon, a little anecdotal, speaks of our look yesterday and today. Yesterday’s look, attentive and benevolent, at the same time to Western tradition and evolution, normal for us, today’s surprised look at an autonomous, unexpected evolution.

During our stay, began the Friday and Tuesday demonstrations for the students. To which we have, of course, not participated and we have seen little.

There are many young people in these events. Because the Algerian population is young. But also because a major effort was made at the level of education: more than 1,655,000 students – 60% of them female students – entered the university in September 2017 while another 324,000 left with a diploma in hand.

These young people, students, are demonstrating with others today. They are the children of fathers and especially of mothers who, all, were educated and this phenomenon is perhaps not foreign to their importance presence in the demonstrations …

Schooling, especially for girls, is reminiscent of the Tunisian situation. It is in Tunisia that the Arab spring began, it is also in Tunisia that it went the furthest …

The entry into Algiers, coming from the airport, is the first testimony of the investments made in infrastructures. The highway that crosses Algeria from the Tunisian border to the Moroccan border is another testimony. For the moment free from end to end but on which are being built the future toll stations …

But what strikes the most is, in all the cities visited or crossed, outside the urban traffic jams especially in Algiers, it is the number of houses built or under construction … There was, at the time of Independence , 10 million Algerians, they are today 43 million!
We see everywhere buildings under construction or apparently completed but uninhabited (unassigned housing …) or actually completed and inhabited.
The city of Constantine, 200 000 inhabitants in 1960, counts more than 460 000 today, without counting the neighboring cities and in particular the city of 500 000 inhabitants, Ali Mendjeli, under construction !!!

Impressions algériennes
Impressions algériennes
Impressions algériennes

These investments in infrastructure, housing, are at the origin of a phenomenon that everyone talks about, people of the street to the highest political authorities and that weighs heavily in the current events, corruption. And which affects, to varying degrees, many people in many other sectors of the economy and the social: import licenses, housing allocations, privileges …

There are sometimes reports in the press of the presence of Chinese workers in Algeria and sub-Saharan migrants crossing it to Europe. We have seen practically neither one nor the others. If the significant presence of Chinese workers has been confirmed, we have seen only a few Asian girls crossing the street.
In addition, some beggars who were assured that they were sub-Saharan …
Two employers who hired undocumented workers, in full view of everyone, without problem. One of them, a Cameroonian, told us that he was planning a trip to his country in a few months and come back …

But all this, like young people who offer to sell or buy all kinds of currency at Port Saïd square in Algiers, is just anecdotes of passing tourists.


The question today in Algeria is the future of the movement which, since February 23, peacefully assembles, in the streets of large Algerian cities, and place de la République in Paris, thousands of people to say its rejection of the system: not only Bouteflika who had to give up his fifth candidacy, not only ministers or oligarchs some of whom are now in prison, but of all those, including the military, who, since independence, have occupied the power.

Delicate period of transition with the unlikely threat of a Sudanese-type evolution. Sudanese were Place de la Réoyublique in Paris this Sunday …

Difficult period because, thanks to popular unity, the repayment of the system can succeed but will this unity persist for the establishment of new institutions? And especially for the implementation of a new economic policy that would exceed the simple use of oil revenues to calm discontent …

Impressions algériennes

Below, some pictures of the Sunday meeting of Algerians on the Place de la République in Paris, June 16, 2019.

Impressions algériennes
Impressions algériennes
Impressions algériennes
Impressions algériennes
Impressions algériennes
Impressions algériennes
Impressions algériennes
Impressions algériennes
Impressions algériennes
Impressions algériennes
Impressions algériennes
Impressions algériennes
Impressions algériennes
Impressions algériennes
Impressions algériennes
Impressions algériennes
Impressions algériennes
Impressions algériennes
Impressions algériennes

Thanks to Ahmed M and Rachid H.

Représentative democracy in danger

Démocratie représentative en danger

Representative democracy in danger

If Democracy is the government of the people by the people, there are many ways to turn it into a diversion according to the interests of the dominant people. Who do not hesitate to democratically change the rules to prevent the people from governing. To ensure the permanence of dominant’s power. Last example: the privatization of Paris Airport (ADP).

Alas, this diversion of democracy is not a French specialty. It is found, in forms adapted to each country, in all so-called democratic countries. It is not surprising that, everywhere, the first party is that of non-participants in the elections. They are obviously too biased.

In France, the rules are a mixture of presidential and parliamentary system that allows a minority to seize power: the president has won the votes of less than a fifth of adults in the country, it has an overwhelming majority and unconditional in the National Assembly. This makes it the absolute master of the agenda and legislative initiative.

Jacques Chirac was elected, in the second round of the presidential election, with a comfortable majority of votes, not for his program but to block Le Pen father. Elected, he forgot who made him president. Emmanuel Macron, champion of a new world, has understood the old one. Elected, under the same conditions, in front of Le Pen daughter, he took the opportunity to satisfy his real constituents to the detriment of the majority of those who voted for him.

Finally, a yellow explosion leads everyone to recognize that there is a small anomaly: it would be necessary to put, a little, in play the neglected intermediate bodies, to discuss, a little, to explain to the people the intelligent measures inflicted for its good …

After 6 months of yellowing, 3 months of Gand Débat National (1) – conscientiously used as a mid-term election campaign and to prepare for the European elections – President Macron took off the double democratic advance he had set: in the face of the citizen’s initiative referendum (RIC) claim, he proposes a facilitation of the RIP, référendum d’initiative partagée ie referendum of shared initiative (2) – with a reduction of the number of necessary signatures – and a significative proportion in the legislative elections.

The future of these proposals, however, is uncertain.

First of all, it must be emphasized that the initiative is not shared: only parliamentarians (deputies and senators) can trigger the process. They must be 185 to make the request. They were 248 (PS, PC, LR, FI) on the privatization project of Paris Airport.
This initiative must then be recognized by the Constitutional Council, a well-known assembly of extremist antiparliamentarians, perhaps discreetly infiltrated by Gilets Jaunes (yellow vests). Anyway, this second stage is crossed.


But the authorization of the Constitutional Council does not mean that the referendum will take place. First, it is necessary to obtain the agreement of more than 10% of the electorate, ie more than 4.7 million signatures within 9 months. If successful, to block the eventual referendum, it will be enough then that the National Assembly or Senate seize the proposal. This will allow the large presidential majority in the National Assembly.


All in all, it is not a referendum but the possibility of putting a subject on the Parliament’s agenda. It is not a shared initiative but a parliamentary initiative supported by a significant portion of the citizens. Which does not seem to question parliamentary democracy. On the contrary, it gives an opportunity for initiative to parliamentarians who must receive the support of citizens in a clearly defined constitutional framework.

Démocratie représentative en danger


The day after the decision of the Constitutional Council, the title ADP fell on the stock market of 9.73%. Editorial editors panic. Democracy is in danger!


Yet the decision to privatize everything is widely disputed. The exemplary nature of the past privatization of highways is strongly questioned: some even speak of the calamitous precedent of the privatization of motorway companies. The economic and financial interest of such privatization is strongly discussed. Like the announced hydroelectric dams.
These privatizations are not required by the European Union. They simply aim to relieve today’s budget constraints to the detriment of permanent financial inflows.


For the Government, if each time a majority passes a law, 185 parliamentarians can delay its application by more than 9 months, this would create a dangerous situation for the conduct of public action.
But all the way knows that the Constitutional Council is there to limit, according to the law, the possibility of RIP, in certain cases envisaged by the Constitution: organization of the public authorities … reforms relating to the economic, social or environmental policy … The ratification of a treaty.

This risk, even if it is limited, will not lead the President of the Republic to rush to instil, as announced, a little proportional in the legislative elections. This could only increase the number of opponents in the National Assembly likely to put again at stake a possible RIP.
This will comfort the president in his desire to reduce the number and means of MPs and senators.

After 6 months of demonstrations of the GJ, supported, according to the polls, by the population despite the strong repression and the imprecations radio-televised, in spite of 3 months of Great debate, the answers that proposed Emmanuel Macron to answer the demand of the RIC seem badly gone.


There is a good chance that the President of the Republic regains wisdom and sacrifices his desire to facilitate the RIP and to introduce a significant proportional proportion.


We have known for a long time. It is the people who rule if they want what the dominant people want. If not, there is always a way around its will. In strength or softness.


The circumvention of the results of the 2005 referendum, which had not been requested by a RIP, it did not exist at the time, has shown. And the passage in force of the law on work. And the brutal repression of yellow vests … And tomorrow ???


Failing to restore the ISF, if not facilitate the RIP, if not proportional, the president may delete the ENA that no one has requested. It is not sure that it satisfies and les Giets jaunes, and the population.


Who puts a risk to democracy, representative or not, already sick? Those who want to limit or eliminate a possibility of parliamentary initiative that has never been used since 2008? Those who want to reduce the number of parliamentarians and their means? Those who want to go into force to impose measures that compromise the future and are rejected even by the support of the powers that be?
No, it is obviously those who demonstrate, whether trade unionists or Gilets jaunes to defend the general interest against the privatization of national investments depreciated for a long time and now profitable?

Is this the answer to les Gilets jaunes? Or will it need the irruption of Gilets rouges to convince the oligarchs?

Démocratie représentative en danger


1 – Great Debate, to give the floor back to the French on the development of public policies that concern them and relate, among others, democracy and citizenship …

2 – Constitutional Law of 23 July 2008 on the modernization of the institutions of the Fifth Republic adopted almost unanimously by the right and center parliamentarians. Contested during its first attempt at application: it becomes a serious problem of democracy according to the entourage of the Prime Minister.

Algeria, 50 years later (5) some images of Hoggar and Assekrem


By leaving Tam …

Logement de Sud Sahariens, chameliers, serres et constructions comme partout en Algérie.
Logement de Sud Sahariens, chameliers, serres et constructions comme partout en Algérie.
Logement de Sud Sahariens, chameliers, serres et constructions comme partout en Algérie.
Logement de Sud Sahariens, chameliers, serres et constructions comme partout en Algérie.

Housing South Saharan, camel, greenhouses and buildings as everywhere in Algeria.

Saharan ride

Algérie, 50 ans plus tard (5) quelques images du Hoggar et de l'Assekrem
Algérie, 50 ans plus tard (5) quelques images du Hoggar et de l'Assekrem
Algérie, 50 ans plus tard (5) quelques images du Hoggar et de l'Assekrem
Algérie, 50 ans plus tard (5) quelques images du Hoggar et de l'Assekrem
Algérie, 50 ans plus tard (5) quelques images du Hoggar et de l'Assekrem
Algérie, 50 ans plus tard (5) quelques images du Hoggar et de l'Assekrem
Algérie, 50 ans plus tard (5) quelques images du Hoggar et de l'Assekrem
Algérie, 50 ans plus tard (5) quelques images du Hoggar et de l'Assekrem
Algérie, 50 ans plus tard (5) quelques images du Hoggar et de l'Assekrem
Algérie, 50 ans plus tard (5) quelques images du Hoggar et de l'Assekrem

Flowers in the desert

Notamment des Cistanches
Notamment des Cistanches
Notamment des Cistanches
Notamment des Cistanches
Notamment des Cistanches
Notamment des Cistanches
Notamment des Cistanches
Notamment des Cistanches

Including Cistanches

Tomb of Tin Hinan

Et notre ange gardien.
Et notre ange gardien.
Et notre ange gardien.
Et notre ange gardien.
Et notre ange gardien.
Et notre ange gardien.

And our guardian angel.

Abalessa Erg

Lors de tous les déplacements en dehors de la ville, les étrangers sont accompagnés d'une ou deux voitures de gendarmerie.
Lors de tous les déplacements en dehors de la ville, les étrangers sont accompagnés d'une ou deux voitures de gendarmerie.
Lors de tous les déplacements en dehors de la ville, les étrangers sont accompagnés d'une ou deux voitures de gendarmerie.
Lors de tous les déplacements en dehors de la ville, les étrangers sont accompagnés d'une ou deux voitures de gendarmerie.
Lors de tous les déplacements en dehors de la ville, les étrangers sont accompagnés d'une ou deux voitures de gendarmerie.
Lors de tous les déplacements en dehors de la ville, les étrangers sont accompagnés d'une ou deux voitures de gendarmerie.


When traveling outside the city, foreigners are accompanied by one or two gendarmerie cars.

Some rock frescoes

Algérie, 50 ans plus tard (5) quelques images du Hoggar et de l'Assekrem
Algérie, 50 ans plus tard (5) quelques images du Hoggar et de l'Assekrem
Algérie, 50 ans plus tard (5) quelques images du Hoggar et de l'Assekrem
Algérie, 50 ans plus tard (5) quelques images du Hoggar et de l'Assekrem
Algérie, 50 ans plus tard (5) quelques images du Hoggar et de l'Assekrem

Assekrem

The Hermitage

L'Ermitage, la Table d'orientation, l'un des deux ermites, oeuvres de Charles de Foucauld, système de remplissage de la citerne réservoir d'eau et Porte de l'Oued (Bab el Oued)
L'Ermitage, la Table d'orientation, l'un des deux ermites, oeuvres de Charles de Foucauld, système de remplissage de la citerne réservoir d'eau et Porte de l'Oued (Bab el Oued)
L'Ermitage, la Table d'orientation, l'un des deux ermites, oeuvres de Charles de Foucauld, système de remplissage de la citerne réservoir d'eau et Porte de l'Oued (Bab el Oued)
L'Ermitage, la Table d'orientation, l'un des deux ermites, oeuvres de Charles de Foucauld, système de remplissage de la citerne réservoir d'eau et Porte de l'Oued (Bab el Oued)
L'Ermitage, la Table d'orientation, l'un des deux ermites, oeuvres de Charles de Foucauld, système de remplissage de la citerne réservoir d'eau et Porte de l'Oued (Bab el Oued)
L'Ermitage, la Table d'orientation, l'un des deux ermites, oeuvres de Charles de Foucauld, système de remplissage de la citerne réservoir d'eau et Porte de l'Oued (Bab el Oued)
L'Ermitage, la Table d'orientation, l'un des deux ermites, oeuvres de Charles de Foucauld, système de remplissage de la citerne réservoir d'eau et Porte de l'Oued (Bab el Oued)
L'Ermitage, la Table d'orientation, l'un des deux ermites, oeuvres de Charles de Foucauld, système de remplissage de la citerne réservoir d'eau et Porte de l'Oued (Bab el Oued)

The Hermitage, the Orientation Table, one of the two hermits, works of Charles de Foucauld, filling system of the cistern water tank and Door of the Wadi (Bab el Oued)

The cottage

Algérie, 50 ans plus tard (5) quelques images du Hoggar et de l'Assekrem
Algérie, 50 ans plus tard (5) quelques images du Hoggar et de l'Assekrem
Algérie, 50 ans plus tard (5) quelques images du Hoggar et de l'Assekrem
Algérie, 50 ans plus tard (5) quelques images du Hoggar et de l'Assekrem
Algérie, 50 ans plus tard (5) quelques images du Hoggar et de l'Assekrem
Algérie, 50 ans plus tard (5) quelques images du Hoggar et de l'Assekrem

Kabyle meeting at the Assekrem

Algérie, 50 ans plus tard (5) quelques images du Hoggar et de l'Assekrem
Algérie, 50 ans plus tard (5) quelques images du Hoggar et de l'Assekrem

Views from Assekrem

Images enchainées
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Images enchainées
Images enchainées
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The last lights of the city

Vers l'aéroport
Vers l'aéroport
Vers l'aéroport

To the airport

Algeria, 50 years later (4), Tamanrasset-city

In the three weeks spent in Algeria in late February-early March, a few days in Tamanrasset. The previous visit dates from December 1965!
At the time, 5,000 inhabitants. According to the last census in 2008, 80,000 and, people say today, the number is estimated at 150,000! That’s to say the change !!

Not Hoggar, of course, even if the estimate of the altitude of the Assekrem is not exactly the same !!!

 

Some pictures of the city
The colors of the city …

Algérie, 50 ans plus tard (4), Tamanrasset-ville
Algérie, 50 ans plus tard (4), Tamanrasset-villeAlgérie, 50 ans plus tard (4), Tamanrasset-ville
Algérie, 50 ans plus tard (4), Tamanrasset-ville
Algérie, 50 ans plus tard (4), Tamanrasset-villeAlgérie, 50 ans plus tard (4), Tamanrasset-ville
Algérie, 50 ans plus tard (4), Tamanrasset-ville
Algérie, 50 ans plus tard (4), Tamanrasset-ville
Algérie, 50 ans plus tard (4), Tamanrasset-ville
Algérie, 50 ans plus tard (4), Tamanrasset-ville
Algérie, 50 ans plus tard (4), Tamanrasset-villeAlgérie, 50 ans plus tard (4), Tamanrasset-ville
Algérie, 50 ans plus tard (4), Tamanrasset-villeAlgérie, 50 ans plus tard (4), Tamanrasset-villeAlgérie, 50 ans plus tard (4), Tamanrasset-ville
Algérie, 50 ans plus tard (4), Tamanrasset-villeAlgérie, 50 ans plus tard (4), Tamanrasset-villeAlgérie, 50 ans plus tard (4), Tamanrasset-ville

Along the streets…

Algérie, 50 ans plus tard (4), Tamanrasset-ville
Algérie, 50 ans plus tard (4), Tamanrasset-villeAlgérie, 50 ans plus tard (4), Tamanrasset-ville
Algérie, 50 ans plus tard (4), Tamanrasset-villeAlgérie, 50 ans plus tard (4), Tamanrasset-villeAlgérie, 50 ans plus tard (4), Tamanrasset-ville
Algérie, 50 ans plus tard (4), Tamanrasset-villeAlgérie, 50 ans plus tard (4), Tamanrasset-villeAlgérie, 50 ans plus tard (4), Tamanrasset-ville

On the central square

Algérie, 50 ans plus tard (4), Tamanrasset-ville
Algérie, 50 ans plus tard (4), Tamanrasset-villeAlgérie, 50 ans plus tard (4), Tamanrasset-ville
Algérie, 50 ans plus tard (4), Tamanrasset-villeAlgérie, 50 ans plus tard (4), Tamanrasset-villeAlgérie, 50 ans plus tard (4), Tamanrasset-ville

Maisons de l’artisanat et de la culture (Houses of crafts and culture)

Algérie, 50 ans plus tard (4), Tamanrasset-villeAlgérie, 50 ans plus tard (4), Tamanrasset-ville
Algérie, 50 ans plus tard (4), Tamanrasset-villeAlgérie, 50 ans plus tard (4), Tamanrasset-ville
Algérie, 50 ans plus tard (4), Tamanrasset-villeAlgérie, 50 ans plus tard (4), Tamanrasset-ville

Bordj of Charles de Foucauld at Tam

Bordj du Marabout, chambre, le trou par où, disait-on serait passé la balle meurtrière !
Bordj du Marabout, chambre, le trou par où, disait-on serait passé la balle meurtrière !
Bordj du Marabout, chambre, le trou par où, disait-on serait passé la balle meurtrière !
Bordj du Marabout, chambre, le trou par où, disait-on serait passé la balle meurtrière !
Bordj du Marabout, chambre, le trou par où, disait-on serait passé la balle meurtrière !

Bordj du Marabout, room, the hole where, it was said, would have passed the murderous bullet!

Algeria, 40 years later (3), Constantine and Djemila …

During this short stay in Algeria, three days in Constantine (March 1-4) where we worked in 1964-66.
Constantine, the Rhumel gorges and its bridges, its old neighborhoods and its new constructions (for us): the Grand Pont, the Abd el Kader Mosque, the « Brazilian » University…

The Rhumel Gorge

Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......
Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......
Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......
Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......

Constantine on Rhumel

Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......
Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......
Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......

and its bridges

Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......
Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......
Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......
Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......

Views from the bridges

Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......
Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......
Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......

November 1st Square

(ex : place de la Brèche)

Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......
Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......
Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......

To the Palais du Bey

Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......
Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......
Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......

The Palais du Bey

Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......
Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......
Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......
Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......

To Le Coudiat
Abane Ramdane Street and Amirouche Square
(ex Place de la Pyramide)

Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......
Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......
Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......

The Museum

Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......
Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......
Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......
Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......

Fruits and vegetables
(Marché Saint-Jean)

Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......
Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......

The Great Bridge

Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......
Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......
Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......

The Mosque Abd El Kader

Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......
Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......
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Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......

At the « Brazilian » university

Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......
Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......
Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......

Constantine found again

(Cité des fonctionnaires, Lycée El Houria, Direction départementale de la santé, Centre para-médical)

Cité des fonctionnaires, lycée El Houria (statue de Paul Belmondo), Direction départementale de la santé, Centre paramédical.
Cité des fonctionnaires, lycée El Houria (statue de Paul Belmondo), Direction départementale de la santé, Centre paramédical.Cité des fonctionnaires, lycée El Houria (statue de Paul Belmondo), Direction départementale de la santé, Centre paramédical.Cité des fonctionnaires, lycée El Houria (statue de Paul Belmondo), Direction départementale de la santé, Centre paramédical.
Cité des fonctionnaires, lycée El Houria (statue de Paul Belmondo), Direction départementale de la santé, Centre paramédical.Cité des fonctionnaires, lycée El Houria (statue de Paul Belmondo), Direction départementale de la santé, Centre paramédical.

Cité des fonctionnaires, lycée El Houria (statue de Paul Belmondo), Direction départementale de la santé, Centre paramédical.

 

Near Constantine,
Khroub with the tomb of Massinissa

Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......
Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......
Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......
Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......

Dr. Masseboeuf was the Departmental Director of Health when I was a departmental epidemiologist in Constantine (1964-66).
A remarkable biography (Jean Sadek Masseboeuf: itinéraire d’un médecin algérien : La Rochelle 1908-Constantine 1985, Volume 1, 1908-1962) was published under the signature of his nephew, Jean-Louis Masseboeuf, published by Bouchène.

I was a student and then a collaborator of Pr Chaulet, head of the department of pneumology, when I worked at the Dispensaire antituberrculeux d’El Harrach, 1966-72).

 

*************

 

Djemila, the beautiful Roman

The ruins of Djemila, now paying entry as the Royal Tomb or Tipaza, have become places for families, young people, couples, under a certain surveillance … In Djemila, the only place during this three-week stay where we were checked: passport, visa, registration, driver’s license ….

 

Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......
Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......
Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......
Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......
Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......
Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......
Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......
Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......
Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......
Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......

The entrance to Djemila

 

Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......
Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......
Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......
Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......Algérie, 40 ans plus tard (3), Constantine et Djemila......

Algerian Sunday Place de la République à Paris 14/04/2019

Every sunday afternoon, since February 17, according to a journalist who was at this first gathering, Algerians from the Ile de France meet on the Place de la République in Paris from 14 to 18:30.

Some pictures of the rally of Sunday, April 14, 2019. On the statue, a flag, a poster, a single activist in a red vest (security?), a red and white ribbon to protect the lion …

Important gathering, activist with many discussion groups, formal and informal, festive with dances, songs, music, family … With multiple flags that can be bought on site, political signs …

From 5:30 pm, an activist with a megaphone calls for the dispersal, the stands are dismantled, police cross the place discreetly, the banners disappear little by little, some try to clean the place.

Next Sunday?

NB: at the end of the article some images of gathering on the occasion of the Bengali New Year on the other half of the place de la Republic.

 

Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019

Rally on the occasion of the Bengali New Year

Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019
Dimanche algérien place de la République 14/04/2019