Cinque Terre, 176 steps

They are both naked on the return of a beautiful walk in the mountains, along one of the paths of the Cinque Terre, between the blues of the sky and the sea. And the 176 steps to climb to reach the room. But just happy. Refreshed by the shower and the caress of the air flowiing between the windows, wide open.

The windows are well arranged. The sun does not come in. By the one in front of them, the view extends, above the roofs and gardens, to the sea from which the fresh air is blowing. Through the window on the left, the trees paint multiple greens on the hill. In the midst of these greens, which descend cascading towards the village and the sea, half-way down, an enormous bush of oleander rose from the pass to be noticed from afar.

The brown hand passes slowly over the skin that the sun has, barely, stained. A shiver is born between the two, spreads, slowly, with the hand? The skin ? The hand progresses, touching the body which seems imperceptibly to slip, to offer, to favor the displacement of the fingers. Three pulps which seek to capture the softness of the grain, to respond to the expectation, to erase and renew the tension by progressing.

The bodies stretch. Getting closer. The eyes close to keep the luminosity and freshness of the air. To allow concentration on the waves that run in all directions, which panic.

The brown hand slips, encounters fine brush, awakens them, gives them a breath, makes them almost murmur like the wind makes the leaves of the tree sing, move the branches, vibrate the trunk to the roots. Aspiring the life of the earth. Feeding his power with his desire.

To this calm silence is added the grave voice of a man, quiet, incomprehensible but serene. Who speaks, under the window, alone or on the phone or to a silent interlocutor.

They are both, through these open windows, alone, in full nature, calm, bathed in sunshine, colors, curves …. rocked by this voice that comes to fill the soothed beauty of this late afternoon And humanize it.

 

Cinque Terre, 176 marches

The whistle of the train sings the harmony between nature and lovers… Followed by a terrible braille of scrap metal.

Why does this dissonant noise with the moment, with the landscape, awaken a sentence read recently … « the projectile strikes in the trench, it looks like the claw of a roaring tiger ».

The train is already far away but the trouble persists, becomes incrusted. The deep blue of the sea, which had just been a source of serenity and harmony, seems to display the hypocritical calmness of a shroud for those who flee from poverty and are everywhere rejected.

How can the harmonious power of nature cover with its indifference the killers who hide themselves, the unfortunates who flee from misery, the lovers who shut themselves up in its bubble of silence and sweetness …


How can it be the absolute serenity of a summer afternoon and the angry burial of thousands of fishermen?

How can the same sea, so blue, so calm, here be the image of the pleasure of women, of men, of children, of the happiness of lovers and a little further on the mortuary cloth of thousands of people in the complicity of men and elements.
Cinque Terre, 176 marches

The elections against democracy?

Les élections contre la démocratie ?

 

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Democracy is not limited to free elections that apply the principle of one person, one vote. But even confining itself to such a restrictive conception of democracy, it can be seen that in two old democratic countries of the West, the United States and France, the last elections have only respected the principle in a very formal way. In a few months, these elections have profoundly changed the political situation. At the domestic level and for the United States well beyond.

 In the United States, Hilary Clinton won nearly 66 million votes (48.03% of the votes cast) and Donald Trump nearly 63 (45.94%) in the presidential election. But because of the electoral system, it is Donald Trump with 304 Great voters against 227 for Hilary Clinton (56.5% against 42.2%), who was elected president of the United States! This is the fifth time the phenomenon has occurred. In 1824, 1876, 1888, 2000 and 2016, the president-elect was not the candidate with the most votes.

This is due to the fact that virtually all states use the winner takes all rule, the winner takes everything, which attributes all the major voters of the state to the candidate who has received the majority, relative or absolute, of the votes. Some states are predominantly partisan, or republican or democrat. In this case, whether the dominant party receives 55% or 65% of the votes does not change anything, all the Great voters are attributed to him. On the other hand, in a swing state, the two dominant parties are substantially equal. It only takes a few thousand votes to switch from one party to another so that all the delegates of that state change sides.
This system explains the victory of Donald Trump.
The phenomenon has been known for a long time. And accepted.

The United States today is not very different from yesterday but the policy of the last white president is not exactly the same as that of the first black president! From immigration policy or obamacare inside to positions in foreign policy, on Cop 21, relations with NATO and the European Union or the Middle East …

This seems to illustrate the old slogan,élection, piège à cons, which means, conventionally, that elections are useless. In the specific case, some must regret their non-participation in the vote …

 Another way of democratically escaping from democracy is, what is called in France, the electoral punching of constituencies, in the United States gerrymandering: partisan gerrymandering, party-oriented charcutting when the goal is to accentuate the advantage of a political party, and racial gerrymandering to increase or limit the political weight of a racial minority. This term was born in 1811 when Governor Elbridge Gerry drew a riding in the shape of a salamander to favor his party.

Finally, the number of delegates allocated to each state varies widely: from 1.41 in California to 5.12 in Wyoming, per million inhabitants.

In France, the majority electoral system with two rounds in the presidential and legislative elections with legislative presidential elections entails an even greater distortion between the political forces in the population and in the national representation.

Emmanuel Macron, with 24% of the votes in the first round of the presidential election and 28% in the first round of the legislative elections for his party and 43% in the second, won the post of President of the Republic without any counter-power in the National Assembly but on the contrary a strong absolute majority (308 out of 577). Majority very close to the president because a good part has no personal implantation in his constituency. These candidates were nominated by the president himself and his close guard and were elected on his own name. This allows him to exercise a republican dictatorship, in principle for the next 5 years.
Finally, the program of Emmanuel Macron was known partially and belatedly, as well by the voters as by the persons who were candidates or even elected to the legislative ones.

This does not affect the legality of the election of Emmanuel Macron and his majority. And the dispute can not come, in any case, from those who have been in power until then. They did not change the electoral rules whenever they could, as well as Nicolas Sarkozy and Francois Hollande, because they had taken advantage of it and still hoped to remain in power although they were in the minority in the country, as evidenced by the polls and the results of all by-elections during their quinquennium.
It is also good practice to challenge the legitimacy of the latter election as a result of the high proportion of abstentionists, white or null votes. But this invalidates the system and especially the previous majorities that the president. The other candidates can not rely on superior results.

Les élections contre la démocratie ?

Nevertheless, the extent of the powers available to the President makes one think of the dictator of the Roman Republic: an extraordinary magistrate held full powers for a mandate which could originally not exceed six months. This has not always been the case. Here, except accident, Emmanuel Macron is in power for 5 years. Whatever the results of the polls or of the by-elections or local elections to come.
In the United States, Donald Trump is only elected for 4 years and legislative elections are held every 2 years that can question the Republican majority in Congress.

The first decisions of the President of the Republic show his willingness to make full use of the possibilities offered by the Constitution and to increase his freedom of maneuver: the will to take measures quickly through the use of ordinances, Article 49 -3, extension of the state of emergency, integration of possibilities offered by the state of emergency into normal legislation, assignment of quaestor to the opposition of his majesty and not the opposition party (? ) the most important of the National Assembly, declaration in front of the parliament in Congress in Versailles, which is on the eve of the speech of the Prime Minister in front of the National Assembly which seems to remind the latter its second role in the conduct of government policy, attachment to the President of the Republic of the coordination cell to fight against terrorism, election-nomination of a friend, control of the speech of ministers and their relations with the press, the skilful elimination of François Bayrou, who had created minor problems at the time of the legislative elections, who wanted to be in the government and retain his right to an independent speech, not having sufficiently taken into account that the votes of his group were not necessary to the new president to have an absolute majority in the National Assembly …

Emmanuel Macron, as usual, does not waste time, ensures his bases, solidifies his power as long as he enjoys the support of a parliamentary group, for the moment charmed and held, of public opinion according to the polls before proceeding with legislative measures …

Les élections contre la démocratie ?

Similarly, it has undertaken some maneuvers to obtain an important if not preponderant place at European level. It is not clear that this is so easy. At the symbolic level, the invitation of Donald Trump, the statements on the Cop21 go in this direction. The handshake with Donald Trump whose strength has been magnified to show the place that the president wants, has probably had another interpretation, on the other side of the Rhine, after the affront of Donald Trump to Angela Merkel during their meeting. And short sentences are now beginning to be heard by the Bundesbank President or Angela Merkel, herself, at their press conference …

But President Macron needs concrete results at the economic and budgetary level to make his European positions appear as something other than Gallic sufficiency.

The seizure of power by Emmanuel Macron was quickly carried out at the electoral and institutional level. For the moment, he is on the post-electoral cloud, adored by many despite the sprawl to traditional democratic practices, he can hope to have put on his side all the assets to tackle the measures he wants to impose on French society .
It remains to be seen what will be its answers ……

Les élections contre la démocratie ?
Les élections contre la démocratie ?

Seven days in Cinque Terre (Italy)

Sept jours à Cinque terre (Italie)

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In the Cinque Terre, there are five villages on the Ligurian Riviera, Monterosso al mare, Vernazza, Corniglia, Manarola and Rio maggiore, hooked between the sky and the sea, between Genoa and La Spezia, listed as a World Heritage site in 1997 with Porto Venere, and the islands of Palmaria, Tino and Tinetto.

These five villages, a few kilometers from each other, are difficult to reach by car and are connected by rail, by footpaths which make the hikers happy and by boat (except Corniglia).

Monterosso al mare

Village in two parts connected by a tunnel: the station and the beach, on one side, the old village, on the other

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VERNAZZA

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CORNIGLIA

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MANAROLA

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RIO MAGGIORE

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PORTO VENERE

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During this stay, a round trip, by boat from Monterosso to Porto Venere, for the day, allows to see all the coast, the mountain that falls in the sea, villages, vineyards, olive trees with possibility to stop in one or more villages and continue or return with another boat …


As a bonus, a jump to La Spezia and Genoa …

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In Genoa, a very beautiful exhibition on Modigliani and as it was the day of Saint John the Baptist, patron saint of the city, on the Matteotti square, in front of the Palazzo Ducale, a group of faithful who were to join the procession: Five Christ in the cross, important, three or four men united to lift it and have it taken over by another equipped with a harness, relayed according to its capacities ...

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In Monterosso, the procession took place in the evening. It arrived in the square, led by a priest, who spoke of the sailors who had disappeared at sea. It was followed by a local orphan who played the « Sonnerie aux morts » (Taps ?  Last tops ?). The procession continued to the Church. The Orpheon then returned to the square to greet an orchestra that began playing Morricone. Night had fallen when dozens of boats at sea lit their lantern while the orchestra continued to play. Then fireworks on the jetty and at sea … The fire of Saint John had taken place the day before.

The fire of Saint John is a pagan rite for the summer solstice, recovered by the Church in celebration of Saint John. Here, ecology obliges, the wood burned on this occasion had to be presented to a commission, announced by public display, to control its composition and the absence of toxic varnishes …

The next day, the same procession, for the sailors or the fishermen who died at sea, with Sonnerie aux morts, born during the Civil War in the United States, transfer of powers of the Band to the Orchestra,  of the music to the lanterns of fishermen’s boats and to the pyrotechnic spectacle.

An announced tsunami…

Un tsunami annoncé... (1)

The announced tsunami (1, a) swept the policy and the French political world beyond what had been foreseen and announced ..

With less than a quarter of the votes cast in the first round of the presidential election and less than a third in the legislative elections in favor of La République en marche (LReM), Emmanuel Macron becomes President of the Republic with an absolute majority and very Comfortable, in the National Assembly. And in principle, devoted for 5 years.

If these elections are exceptional, it is less in the distortion between the number of votes obtained and the concentration of power than in the meteoric career of Emmanuel Macron and the unfolding of the electoral sequence.

Francois Hollande, in 2012, after obtaining 28.63% of the votes in the first round of the presidential election, became President of the Republic. The PS, with 29.35% of the votes in the first round of the legislative elections and 34.4% in counting its allies DVG and PRG, obtained 314 seats, ie an absolute majority in the National Assembly without counting the 17 allies, more random, Europe Ecology-The Greens.
This was the last step in a long process of ascending to the power of François Hollande, holder of various mandates since 1983, and of the PS, victorious during all the local elections during the mandate of Nicolas Sarkozy: municipalities of 2008, the Left from the PC to the Greens took control of 149 communes of more than 30 000 inhabitants against 6 for the Modem and 107 for the Right; In 2010, the PS and its allies (DVG and PRG) managed to conquer 22 out of 25 regions, in the metropolis, only Alsace remained on the right; 2011, the Left took the presidency of 57 General Councils, the Center right, 5, and the Right 36. As a bonus, following these various elections, for the first time in its history, the Senate turned left.

In all, after the presidential and legislative elections in 2012, the Left held the Presidency of the Republic, the majority in the National Assembly, the Senate, the Presidency of the majority of the regions, departments and municipal coucils of impotant towns in France.

Emmanuel Macron was not the first to become President of the Republic after passing through the Rothschild bank and without having previously had any electoral mandate. Georges Pompidou had the same course, with a long internship with General de Gaulle to whom he succeeded, after his death. If the first was a literary one and the second was an enarch, they had in common the desire to adapt France to what they considered to be economic modernity.

What is special, it is the course of the career of Emmanuel Macron and the electoral sequence, characterized by the speed of execution to the maneuver.
Georges Pompidou and François Hollande become presidents at 58, Emmanuel Macron at 39, the youngest French president in history!

For the last part of his career, Emmanuel Macron has benefited from favorable legislation: the presidential election immediately followed by the legislative elections, the reversal of the electoral calendar willed by Lionel Jospin, the banning of cumulative mandates and financial penalties for parity push the renewal of political staff.
And especially the political failure of François Hollande and his late decision to give up running for a new term that blocked all candidates from the PS. Except for Macron and Mélenchon, both outside the PS at the time of their decision. Finally, the affairs and the obstinacy of François Fillon deprived Les Républicains of a programmed victory.

It is not possible to forget the very important support that Emmanuel Macron received from the media and the business community. But at first, it was mainly about a Macron bubble, a candidate without experience, too young, without any politic party behind him … The candidate then in court was rather Alain Juppé, the best of us , the wise man, the man of experience, the moderate of the right … Whoever did not have the audacity to cross the Rubicon when the other had already entered Rome!

Emmanuel Macron also knew how to play his lack of program when the Macron law was already well-known, the willingness to align with Angela Merkel’s policy of Germany and his curriculum vitae (fast passages to the PS, Rothschild Bank, adviser of François Hollande, Minister of the Economy) who made him the candidate of the whole right in Europe … In an election campaign, turning mainly on the polls in the Grand Prix de l’Élysée and the practices of Politicians renowned for their high virtue, to the detriment of a real debate, particularly evident in the legislative elections where nothing was organized on television.

It is a relative chance that the despair of the French, after the disappointment of the previous two quinquennas and lack of alternation, found a well channeled outlet to Macron rather than to Marine Le Pen

But this National Assembly, Macron yellow, the elimination of any serious representation of the opposition risks to accentuate a political apathy that already existed and which results in a constant increase of the rate of abstentions in all the elections except during the presidential ones (2).

The consequences of these presidential and legislative elections are many.
The comfortable Macronian majority in the National Assembly should ensure a certain tranquility to the President of the Republic for the quinquennium. Still that the godillots do not always have the same resistance to wear.

Les Républicains, although diminished, although frustrated at being excluded, for the moment, from the government, are the main force of parliamentary opposition. It remains to be seen in this fraternal conflict with LReM which will bring the most parliamentarians to the neighbor. But already covered with debts, Les Républicanis will be in big financial trouble with a significant decrease of the public financing of the political parties.

Un tsunami annoncé... (1)

On the left, things are much more serious. Epinay’s party is dead. If only because of the significant fall in public funding, which is a function of the number of votes in the first round of the legislative elections and the number of elected deputies! With a crack between those who are willing to devote themselves to join the macronian majority and those who want to build something else. This fissure is highlighted with the contradictory withdrawals for the second round of the legislative elections.

Some hope to regroup macronians and macron-compatible in a party that will no longer be the PS, but a center-left party that will find its place as in other Western democracies.

Will the other fraction of the PS, slingers, supporters of Hamon, try to survive alone? By allying with EELV just as badly in point? With a PC that will some day or other make the decision to become an insignificant small group or to merge into an uncertain grouping? A PC which, with a few deputies, may still have some illusions in the general debacle, but which is also going to encounter serious financial problems and, from a political point of view, will find it difficult to find allies which would ensure the survival more and more precarious of its local elected representatives.

The Left, above all, is La France Insoumise. By the number of votes in the first round of the legislative elections, it will receive public funding that will be necessary to ensure the local anchoring as evidenced by the 74 qualifications claimed for the second round against 63 for the PS and 14 for the PC. The election of Jean-Luc Mélenchon, Clémentine Autain and some other deputies would be welcome to make the voice of La France Insoumise heard in the National Assembly. In order to survive, it will be necessary to maintain a certain unity and to welcome those who want a real change.

On the far right, the results of Marine Le Pen in the first round of the presidential election made hope to the militants a clearer breakthrough in the second and a significant number of elected in the National Assembly. These hopes have been disappointed. While the prospect of a coming to power by the electoral process fades, intense dissensions appear within the FN, a more vigorous opposition to the government, external to the institutions, could attract many militants.

Un tsunami annoncé... (1)

The lack of institutional and meaningful representation of oppositions in Parliament, with the elimination of the National Front and the Left, is not without dangers.

Emmanuel Macron’s large victory announces a number of measures that would go beyond the El Khomri law, using 49-3 and ordinances. François Hollande succeeded in passing the texts he presented to the National Assembly at the cost of harsh and numerous demonstrations. Emmanuel Macron will try to enjoy the summer and post-election euphoria maintained at national and European level, to go further, as fast as possible without triggering a social turn.

Unless the majority of the population finally thinks that there is only one way and that Emmanuel Macron is the guide. In the absence of a parliamentary opposition, there is a high probability that the opposition will move towards the street. The tsunami could then take on another dimension.

Un tsunami annoncé... (1)

1 –  Le tsunami de la présidentielle a – Le tsunami continue

2 –The abstention, the white vote or the null vote in the second round of the last presidential election are not of the same order, far from talking of a disinterest, they testify of an opposition to the two candidates in presence despite multiple injunctions.

A Few Words from Cannes, 2017 Film Festival

 
Quelques mots de Cannes,  Festival du film 2017
The party is over !
What is left after seeing 3 or 4 movies a day for 10 days? In the few lines that follow, more than critics, film by film, images that came from other places or from the past, which meet, telescope, crossed impressions at random from the films seen, (37) a few notes on the general atmosphere or informations read in the festival press.

Unable to see all the films presented in the different selections: competition, hors compétition, un certain regard, cannes classics, quinzaine des réalisateurs, semaine de la critique, acid, cinéma de la plage…

The first thought will therefore be a regret: have not been able to see or review certain films. Regret, often irrettrapable because many will never go out in theaters.

Projected at the beginning of the Festival, 120 battements par minute (120 beats per minute) of Robin Campino, (135 mn) was also appreciated by critics as spectators, making a favorite for the Palme.
120 beats per minute is a documentary drama that retraces the story of Act-up France by a director who was a member.
Taking the pretext of the arrival of two new members, the film begins with a brief explanation of Act-up and its actions, useful for viewers who are not always aware. Then there is the preparation of actions, their realization, punching actions, vigorous but non-violent, to upset the general indifference and even more that of the government and a multinational pharmaceutical… The film evolves towards internal conflicts sometimes severe and increasingly serious personal health issues that have profoundly affected a whole generation …
120 beats per minute did not have La Palme but only the Grand Prix. There is no doubt that he will find his audience even if, fortunately, things have changed in relation to the period of the film.

Quelques mots de Cannes,  Festival du film 2017


The Square, directed by Ruben Östlund (Sweden, 142 mn) won La Palme d’or. Ruben Östlund has already received in Cannes, le prix du jury un certain regard in 2014 for Force majeure (Snow Therapy).

On a Stockholm square, a woman flees a persecutor, no one helps her. Finally, two men interposed and congratulated their action. One, Christian, director of the Museum of Modern Art in Stockholm, who soon realizes that his cards, cell phone, cufflinks have been stolen. From then on, things will go wrong.

In his desire to recover his property, he will run up against the pugnacity of a young boy, who is unduly accused of robbery; In his professional life, an unhappy clip for the exhibition he prepares, The Square, inciting to tolerance and solidarity, puts him in a delicate situation.
The Square, as Snow Therapy, poses the question of responsibility, cowardice, but here in the well-policed ​​Swedish society that is depicted with a squeaky humor touching journalism, art … What everyone did not appreciate.
This interesting film would, however, be shortened by about twenty minutes.

Le Redoutable by Michel Hazanavicius (107 mn). The film is inspired by the book of Anne Wiazemsky – Godard’s wife, 1967-1970 – A year later, released in 2015 which tells May 68-May 69.
Jean-Luc Godard in 1968, in full glory. A bad reception of the film La Chinoise with Anne Wiazemsky and the spirit of May 68 provoke a profound questioning of the filmmaker. He engages in the 68 challenge, becomes maoist, denies his first films and wants to create a cinema in accordance with his new ideas. It launches into public or private statements that strike everyone.
Film shot at the Godard maner  which describes a Godard probably sincere in the turmoil but unbearable including for his wife, his friends …

Another film about a personality, Rodin, by Jacques Doillon, (France, Belgium, 119 mn), a film that would win or to be subtitled or to be dubbed in French, notably Vincent Lindon, so that we can understand what is being said.

Quelques mots de Cannes,  Festival du film 2017
Without knowing, if it is a deliberate choice or the tune of the time, several films were staging not problems of adolescents as often but of younger children.

Okja by Bong Joon-ho, (South Korea / United States, 118 mn). Korean farmers, a grandfather and his granddaughter, are raising an exceptionally genetically modified pig for a multinational agribusiness (Mirando). This pig is so well treated that it becomes the most beautiful of the experimental series of the multinational. He is therefore promised to glory and to make the best sausage. But the little girl will defend Okja with the help of the Animal Liberation Front …
This film, produced by Netflix, is more American than Korean: vision of the remote countryside in Korea, criticism of animal suffering inflicted by capitalist agro-industry. The adventure ends well thanks to the girl’s love for Okja, her fierce struggle and her alliance with the FLA that not only saves Okja but also a piglet that discreetly her parents escape from the slaughterhouse, Passing under the barbed wire …

This American optimism carried by children, a classic, is found in Wonderstruck by Todd Haynes, (United States 117 mn).
In 1927, Rose, deaf and dumb, escaped to New York to join her mother, famous actress who rejects her but finds her elder brother. In 1977, Ben, who had become accidentally deaf, also fled to New York in search of his father, whom he knew nothing about. These two lives, told in parallel, the first in black and white, the second in color, will eventually meet.
The story, difficult enough to follow at the beginning, two lives at 50 years of distance, ends happily. Ben finds a family and even makes a friend, a young black, a little forsaken by his parents, who suffers from loneliness.
encontrer.

The films that were programmed were far from optimistic, even when they were children.
In The killing of a sacred deer of Yorcos Lanthymos (Ireland, 109 mn), Steven, a cardiac surgeon, takes the young Martin, whose father died at one of his interventions. The young boy announces to the surgeon that he must execute a member of his family, his wife or one of his two children, otherwise they will all die gradually. Soon the son of the surgeon is suffering from unexplained disorders, first a paralysis of the lower limbs then new symptoms appear … which will lead Stephen to an impossible choice.

Particularly pessimistic, the films coming from the east of Europe.
Nubov (Love Fault) by Andrey Zvyagintsev, (Russia / France, 127 mn), shows a couple who quarrels under the eyes of their son who disappears.
The tear is exacerbated during the child’s researches. The cracking of each persisted years later. The protagonists can not rebuild themselves elsewhere, although each has a partner who should bring back a certain serenity.
Failure is not just that of a couple. But that of a society where the administration is incapable of organizing the research of the child and where even the volunteers, active and organized, can not find the missing young person
An inefficient society, broken adults, a youth without a future.
Krotkaya (Sweet Woman) by Sergei Loznitza, (Ukraine, 143 mn) (1)
A woman tries to bring her imprisoned husband a package she had sent him but which the administration refused to transmit without explanation. The package is rejected again, at the counter, without motivation. She tries to achieve her ends by all means, addresses the association of defense of the prisoners, confronts different police networks and / or mafia … before disappearing in the night for a new attempt…
The same pessimism is found in two films seen in un certain regard.
Tesnota of Kantemir Balagov (Russia, 118 mn) takes place in 1998 in Nalchik, in the North Caucasus, where Jewish community and Kabarda (Muslim) community coexist. Illana works in her father’s garage. A family celebration is organized for the betrothal of his younger brother David. But this one and his fiancée are kidnaped with demand of ransom.
To collect the required sum, the family appeals to the Jewish community which does not respond with enthusiasm: each has his problems. To pay, they must sell all their goods, the workshop … Finally, the family agrees to marry Illana to get the necessary amount …
But Illana, who is independent, has a relationship with a young person from the Kabardan community, despite the tensions that exist between the two communities, refuses. These tensions are highlighted during a television show showing the decapitations of Russian soldiers by the Chechens who allow anti-semitic reflections …
Finally, the family is broken. David remains with his wife in the Jewish community while Illana follows his parents who move, once again.

Posoki (Directions) : Stephan Komandarev (Bulgaria / Germany, 143 mn) gives a glimpse of the problems of Bulgaria during and after the communist period through Sofia’s nocturnal taxi races.

If the hero of the film in competition, Jupiters’Moon by Kornel Mundruczo (Hungary, Germany, 123 mn) is successful, it is by levitation! Indeed, this young Syrian refugee is wounded, by gunshot, at the crossing of the Hungarian border. This injury gives him the power of levitation that a doctor will want to exploit financially while the young immigrant thinks only of finding his father in a station. The film shows the situation of refugees entering or attempting to enter Hungary and makes the link explosion-bombing in the station with immigration … The young does not find his father but hovering in levitation over the city.

Aus dem Nichts, the German-Turkish film by Fatih Akin, (France / Germany, 96 mn) also talks about an attack but neo-Nazi. In Hamburg, the agency of a Turk, married with a German, is destroyed by a Nazi attack, resulting in the death of the father and his son. The assassins are discovered and acquitted. It is the mother who will do justice.

Quelques mots de Cannes,  Festival du film 2017
Two films presented inf different selections, dealing with female fantasies, dixit Jean-Claude Carrière, for Belle de jour by Luis Buñuel (1967, 101 mn, cannes classics). And François Ozon’s L’amant double, (107 mn, hors compétition). Female fantasies? Seen by men? For men ? In any case, with a woman’s approach very different from one film to another and images now more explicit.

Three French films on the war with aspects that differ, in particular, according to the date of filming: La bataille du rail, by René Clément (cannes classics, 85 mn), film on the Resistance of railwaymen during the occupation (released in February 1946 ),  
Week-end à Zuidcoote, (cinéma de la plage, 119 mn), by Henri Verneuil (1964) with Jean-Paul Belmondo and Nos années folles (hors compétition, 103 mn), by André Téchiné (2017). From the collective and anonymous heroism of the Resistance, magnified after the Liberation, to the personal and family drama of a deserter, during and after the war of 14-18, disguised as a woman to escape military justice and finally transvestite, through the adventures of the national Belmondo in the Poche de Dunkerque !

Among the films seen, Latin America was hardly present, Marcela Said’s Los perros (semaine de la critique, Chile / France, 94 mn) reveals the difficulties of hiding the past of members of good society under dictatorships in Chile and Argentina.

La novia del desierto (Argentina / Chile, un certain regard, 78 mn) by Cecilia Atan and Valeria Pivato. A woman, 54, leaves Buenos Aires for a new place in another city that she must reach by bus. At a stop, she goes for a ride on the market and leaves her bag in a trader’s truck. The next day, she goes looking for the trader, finds him, not the bag, and goes with him. Finally, she finds the bag and much more … But the roads diverge between the merchant – nomad – and the lady of company – sedentary.
Happy and brief encounter, treated with discretion.

This is not the case of another short meeting that tells Claude Lanzmann in Napalm (hors compétition, 50 mn). On his third trip to North Korea, Claude Lanzmann shoots a documentary about his historical flirtation with a beautiful, of course, Korean nurse on a previous trip. Narcissistic documentary of an old intellectual who could have been the subject of a beautiful short story.

Quelques mots de Cannes,  Festival du film 2017

They are also brief encounters of a totally different kind that Visages, villages of Agnes Varda and JR. (hors compétition, 89 mn) talks about. They crisscross the French countryside with a truck that makes it possible to draw large posters. They meet people, a saleswoman, workers, farmers … Photograph them, draw huge posters that they stick in the village, in the factory … Humor, discretion, exchanges …

Quelques mots de Cannes,  Festival du film 2017

Talked about in Cannes

Everyone likes to say that the festival-goers, in a certain way, live in a bubble, especially if you do not sacrifice the few free moments to go from the big screen to the small (television) or the tiny (portable), links with the world that continues … Even more if you take advantage of the sunny weather to stay on the terrace, a little beyond the time strictly necessary for restoration, to stroll and enjoy the spectacle of the Croisette or even to take a quick bath, sun or sea.

The events are quite blunt to the simple festival-goers: more or less firm handshake, which gives meaning to the world, to the visit of the new minister of culture.
Cannes is not far from Nice, nor from Manchester. A bomb alert may have brought some disturbances, generally unseen. More notable is the significant police presence, the strengthening of controls and security measures without major consequences except some additional expectations. In the usual queues, the discussions between festival-goers, carried like every year on the films seen or to be seen, on the chances of such or such film to obtain the Palme
Perhaps, some thought of the possible attacks, it did not appear in the conversations …

In the professional press, available free, two subjects important for the future of the cinema were approached by all: virtual reality and Netflix,

Should it be selected films produced by Netflix, intended for the small screen and which will not go out in the movie theaters? What will be the future relationships between Netflix and the Festival? And cinema?

Two films were selected in the compétition officielle The Meyerowitz Stories by Noah Baumbach and Okja by Bong Joon-ho. Another to la quinzaine des réalisateurs  Bushwick of Cary Murnion and Jonathan Milott. These films should not be released in theaters. The first Netflix film, Beasts of No Nation, was launched in 2015 in Venice and has not been released in Italian cinemas.
Amazon, the competitor of Netflix, allows the release in theaters before broadcasting and complies with the regulations in force. Amazon presents in competition Wonderstruck of Todd Haynes.

In France, films were first released in theaters, four months later, on DVD, after ten-twelve months on pay-TV channels, twenty-two to thirty months on free channels and thirty-six months on video on demand By subscription (Netflix, Amazon, CanalPlay, etc.). If Okja (released in South Korea on June 29) or Noah Baumbach’s The Meyerowitz Stories were released first in a theater circuit, Netflix could only broadcast it in 2020 on its site.

A new rule should be applied by the Festival in 2018: any film selected in competition must be broadcast in theaters.

The taxes levied on each cinema ticket by the CNC and the timeline for the release of films are part of the protection of the French film industry. Netflix wants to evade these obligations and choose its investments without going through the system applied by all the French broadcasters.

The battle raged, some accused Netflix of wanting the death of the movie theaters, for others the presence of a film Netflix or Amazon in competition in Cannes is the natural accompaniment of the evolution of the world. Can the cinema and the Festival totally cut itself off from Netflix’s enormous means of production that will attract the best directors? With the possibility of making spectacular movies that will only be visible on the small screen ???

For now, the Festival is doing well. Le Film français of May 26 noted that 12,324 buyers were present in Cannes for the Film Market, including 2,113 Americans, 1,801 French, 1186 British, 600 Chinese (+ 21%), and that 3820 films were on offer.

A short film in virtual reality, Carne y arena (flesh and sand) by Alejandro Gonzáles Iñarritu, was the first film to be presented at the Cannes Film Festival.

This film, of a hot, totally immersive news, tells the story of Latinos in their attempt to enter the United States clandestinely. The spectator is equipped with a virtual reality helmet to live 360 ​​degrees the journey of these people. Thierry Frémaux, the delegate general of the Festival, said after seeing the film: we leave it, trembling and impressed.

Is virtual reality a passing mode like 3D, a limited form in its diffusion like Imax or is it called to become the new cinema? Many producers are interested. Many theaters would already be active in China. And China is the future big market of cinema …

Fnac has launched a virtual cinema to recreate the atmosphere of a cinema outing! By coupling virtual reality helmet and subscription, we can watch a film on demand, at home in A cinema atmosphere !!!!!!

1 – It is increasingly difficult to say the nationality of a film: Krotkaya is a co-production between France-Netherlands-Germany-Lithuania, with Russian and Ukrainian private financing, Latvian tax credit, realized by a Ukrainian in Latvia and Russian ???

Place de la République, Paris

Place de la République, Paris

Place de la République, Paris

La Place de la République plays a special role in the life of Paris. On the border of 3 arrondissements, at the confluence of 7 major arteries and 5 metro lines, it is the starting point or the arrival point of major popular events, a place for those who want to make known a cause or find themselves during small or large events.
And every day, a place open to everyone, young or not so young, to read, play, sunbathe …

Historical account

La Place de la République was called until 1879, Place du Château d’eau because, a Fontaine du Château d’eau or Fontaine aux Lions de Nubie (Pierre-Simon Girard,) was erected there in 1811. This Fountain was used by the people of the quarters of the Temple and the Marsh.

Baron Haussmann (1) transforms this modest triangular place into a large rectangular space (280 m X 120), with two central bulwarks. It pierces le Boulevard de Magenta , des Amandiers (avenue de la République), Prince Eugène (Voltaire), and, at the same time, eliminates the theaters of the Boulevard du Temple, including the Lyric Theater founded by Alexandre Dumas in 1847.
A pleasure establishment with a bourgeois dance hall, Vauxhall, is replaced by the barracks of Prince Eugene, now Caserne Jean-Vérines. Planned for 3,200 men and close to the seditious Faubourg Saint Antoine …
Since 1947, it has hosted the Republican Guard.

.

Place de la République, Paris
In 1867, La Fontaine du Château d’eau was moved to La Villette slaughterhouse market where it served as a drinking trough, on the present Place de la Fontaine-aux-Lions. It was then replaced by the second Fontaine du Château d’eau (Gabriel Davioud), displaced in turn, in 1880, place Félix-Éboué.

For in 1879, the city of Paris launched a contest for a monument dedicated to La Republique, proclaimed in 1875, contest won by the brothers Morice. This monument is inaugurated, in plaster, on 14 July 1880 and on 14 July 1883 in its final version in bronze.

The square was named Place de la Republique in 1889. The statue was then surrounded by four large 25 m high bullfighters, with a bronze base, removed in 1988. They could not resist in case of Strong storms.
A circular basin surrounds the monument since 2013.

In 1904, line 3 of the métro and the République station were created, then lines 5, 8 and 9. Line 11, inaugurated in 1935, is currently being extended.

Trams served Paris and the suburbs. A cable tramway connected the square to Belleville Hill. The traffic occupied 60 per cent of the space, crossed the median, and circled the square.
On the new square, inaugurated in June 2013, all traffic is switched on the west side and the center becomes a pedestrian area around the statue.

Place de la République, Paris

Le Monument à la République ou Statue de la République.

The work of Leopold Morice, in bronze, 9.5 m high, on a stone pedestal, 15.5 m high, 13 m in diameter, is an allegory of the Republic.

Marianne is dressed in a toga with a sword-wearing harness, wearing a Phrygian cap, a symbol of freedom, and a crown of plants, an olive branch, a symbol of peace, in her right hand, her left hand on a tablet of the Droits de l’Homme.
At the feet of the statue, a bronze garland, the coat of arms of Paris and the inscription À la gloire de la République Française – La ville de Paris – 1883.

The base of Charles Morice, in stone, 15 m high, has three statues:
L
a Liberté, L’Égalité, La Fraternité.

Place de la République, Paris

La Liberté, a torch in the left hand, the right hand holding a broken chain. Behind, an oak in relief. :

Place de la République, Paris

L’Égalité, In the right hand, the flag of the Republic, the shaft marked R.F. and in the left a level of carpenter, symbol (Masonic?) of equality before death..

Place de la République, Paris

La Fraternité, a woman watching over two children reading. A sheaf of wheat and a bouquet evoke abundance.
On both sides of the Fraternity, two medallions marked Labor and Pax, decorated with clusters of lictors (3).

Place de la République, Paris
At the foot of the statue, a bronze lion with an urn, Suffrage universel.

Underneath, 12 high reliefs (Leopold Morice) in bronze recall important historical moments between 1789 and 1880.

Place de la République, Paris

20 juin 1789, Serment du jeu de Paume.

Place de la République, Paris

14 juillet 1789, Prise de la Bastille.

Place de la République, Paris

4 août 1789, Abolition des privilèges.

Place de la République, Paris

14 juillet 1790, Fête de la Fédération.

Place de la République, Paris

11 juillet 1792, Proclamation de la Patrie en danger.

Place de la République, Paris

20 septembre 1792, Bataille de Valmy.

Place de la République, Paris

21 septembre 1792, Proclamation de l’abolition de la Royauté.

Place de la République, Paris

13 prairial an II ou 1er juin 1794, Bataille du 13 prairial an II (4).

Place de la République, Paris

29 juillet 1830, Les Trois Glorieuses.

Place de la République, Paris

4 mars 1848, Adoption du suffrage universel masculin (5).

Place de la République, Paris

4 septembre 1870, Proclamation de la République.

Place de la République, Paris

14 juillet 1880, Première fête nationale.

Events,

In the 19th century, La Place de la Republique was the scene of large procession of the Carnival of Paris.

During the fighting of the Liberation de Paris, on August 25, 1944, the Caserne Jean-Vérines was the last german stronghold that surrendered to the Resistance and the 2nd DB.

On 4 September 1958, it was the framework for the demonstration in favor of the Yes to the referendum on the Constitution of the Fifth Republic.

On January 11, 2015, it is the starting point of the Republican march in tribute to the victims who died in the attacks of the previous days and against terrorism.

After the attacks that struck Paris, an improvised memorial is set up on the monument to La République where flowers, sheaves, drawings, posters and banners are arranged.

Place de la République, Paris
Place de la République, Paris
Place de la République, Paris
Place de la République, Paris
Place de la République, Paris
Place de la République, Paris
Place de la République, Paris
Place de la République, Paris

On 6 January 2016, an oak tree is planted at the corner of Boulevard Magenta in memory of the victims of the terrorist attacks of 2015.

Place de la République, Paris

From March 31, 2016, following the demonstrations against the El Khomri law, the Place de la République became the daily meeting place for Nuit Debout.

 

Place de la République, Paris
Place de la République, ParisPlace de la République, Paris
Place de la République, Paris
Frequently, the place is the starting point or for the arrival of parisian, regional or national demonstrations, mostly left-wing or trade-union events.

It is a place of gathering for all those who want to make known a claim …

Place de la République, Paris
Place de la République, Paris
Place de la République, Paris
Place de la République, Paris
Place de la République, Paris
Place de la République, Paris
Place de la République, Paris
Place de la République, Paris
Place de la République, Paris
Place de la République, Paris
Place de la République, Paris
Place de la République, Paris
Activities

A part of the square is set up to allow young people to go skateboarding and games for children of all ages and even adults.
Animators are available to teach the rules of the different games ….

A small mirror of water, 270 m2, allows young children to play during the sunny days of summer

Place de la République, Paris
Place de la République, Paris
Place de la République, Paris
Place de la République, Paris
Place de la République, Paris
Place de la République, Paris
Place de la République, Paris
Place de la République, Paris
Place de la République, Paris
Place de la République, Paris
Place de la République, Paris
Place de la République, Paris

But the place is also a place where you come to meet someone, spend a moment, chat with friends, sunbathe if the weather suits.

Place de la République, Paris
Place de la République, Paris
Place de la République, Paris
Place de la République, Paris
For large events and for everyday life, the large, pedestrian-oriented square, which had appeared in its beginnings as very mineral at a time when everything was to be vegetated, was appropriated by the population.

1 – Very interesting exhibition on the Paris of the Baron Haussmann at the Pavillon de l’Arsenal in Paris, until 4 June 2017.

2 – The project of Jules Dalou, Le Triomphe de la République, arrived second, is commanded by the city of Paris for La place de la Nation and inaugurated in 1899.

3. The Beam of the Lictor, a reference to the ancient Roman republic, represents, after the Revolution, the union and strength of the French citizens united to defend Liberty. L’Assemblée constituante adopted in 1790 the ancient clusters as the emblem of France. At the First Republic, it means that power belongs to the people. In 1848 and after 1870, it appears on the seal of the French Republic. One finds the beams of lictor in the coat of arms of the Republic.

4 – Bataille du 13 Prairial An Year II, also called Combat de Prairial or Troisième bataille d’Ouessant and Glorious First of June opposed the British and French fleets. The French underwent a severe tactical defeat. The British losses were also heavy. From a strategic point of view, however, the battle was a French success because the convoy of cereals bought in the United States arrived safe and sound. As a result, the two belligerents claimed victory.

5 – Sometimes supposed to represent the abolition of slavery, by confusion with the decree of the Gouvernement provisoire which institutes a commission to prepare, as soon as possible, the act of immediate emancipation in all the colonies of the Republic but the Decree that abolishes slavery is of 27 April 1848 ..

The danger of democratic manipulation

Le danger de la manipulation démocratique

In french

The most dangerous opponents of democracy, here and now, are not candidates for a cold and bloody dictatorship but the competent democrats to maneuver to give a democratic and even scientific appearance to their mediaatic-political dictatorship.

It has been said many times that voters do not register on the voters’ lists, abstain, voted blank or null because they did not have enough civic sense because they did not have candidates of their choice, because the real problems were not addressed …
It is less said that they feel fooled, at every election, because their choice is never respected.

During the last presidential election, the essential questions were discussed, candidates have spoken, different opinions have been expressed. What have they become?
With 11 candidates in the first round and 2 in the second.

On socio-economic issues, the candidates had very different positions, from the extreme left to François Fillon.
It is on his very right-handed position that Francois Fillon won the primary of the right and center: in particular on social security and its alliance with la manifestation pour tous. Once appointed, he was obliged to make a quick retro-pédalage on the question of social security and its links with private insurance, because what had been favorable in the right primary became dangerous for the whole Right in a general election, especially in the second round. In a way, François Fillon was the victim of his political honesty.
Sure that power could not escape him after a septennat that ended badly, he said, too clearly, what he wanted to do and even the name of his future prime minister, a boss of private insurance, was already circulating ..
His failure, his degradation is due only partly to this outrageous position, even for his camp. Added to this, his quarrels with the justice system on fictitious and family jobs and some ostentatious gifts.
This point partly hides the first.

Le danger de la manipulation démocratique
It is a safe bet that after a few years, with skilled lawyers and infinite procedural maneuvers, all this will end in a no-nonsense or trivial punishment. And will not stop him, if he wants, to resume an active political life. His comrades, Alain Juppé and Nicolas Sarkozy can testify …
The prisons of France would be empty if all the thieves of chickens were defended with the same fury and by the same lawyers …

Better an injustice than a disorder, said Goethe. This is also what Roland Dumas, president of the Conseil constitutionnel, responsible for enforcing the laws of the Republic, thought. Roland Dumas is convinced of having saved the Republic by having validated the accounts of presidential campaign, obviously irregular, of Jacques Chirac and Edouard Balladur. Nobody was outraged.
Anyway how important?
When the National Campaign Accounts Committee invalidates those of a candidate, this does not prevent it from running for the next presidential election!
When a candidate can come forward and reach the second round of the presidential election without going to the summons of justice for fictitious employment offenses, not for the benefit of members of her family this time but members of her politic organization. Beaten in the presidential election, will she answer, at the convocation of the judges?
Philippe Poutou, ill-bred, pointed out that equality before the law …
Two professions thrive in this republic pollsters and commentators of polls and lawyers.

The ecological issue was clearly addressed during the first round, by candidates who claimed ecology, Jean-Luc Mélenchon and Benoît Hamon, who collected more than 25% of the votes. All the others felt obliged to color their program in a discreet green. But ecology, a central question, is only the survival of mankind, magnified by the Paris conference, regularly recalled by the global warming surveys, and ecology is not sums up that, was completely absent from the second round.

Throughout the year, governments, right and left, take many unpleasant measures that they refuse to assume before the citizens. They prefer to hide behind it is the fault of Europe, it is a European constraint. Forgetting to say that they have accepted or voted in the European Union, the Council or the European Parliament.
The issue of the European Union was addressed by all the candidates. And its operation and policy have been challenged by almost all. On the right, not only the sovereignist and nationalist right. And by the left, which questions its undemocratic functioning and its social orientations.
Between the two rouds, Jean-Claude Juncker and the Commission did not hesitate to give a boost to Emmanuel Macron by announcing new social orientations …

Emmanuel Macron was not elected for his economic and social proposals, his ecological program, his positions in favor of the European Union. He obtained only 24% of the votes in the first round, despite a massive media and poll campaign already focused on the useful vote. And the useful vote, taken again in the second round, was summarized in all-except-Marine-Le-Pen, hammered by polls, always interpreted in an alarmist way, by commentators, journalists, intellectuals … With the aid of the electoral system.
The whole national and european oligarchy, and even beyond, sang the praises of this young candidate and this France finally much more favorable to the European Union … With the congratulations of Angela Merkel on Sunday and the recall of The need to stay in the nails on Monday …

The mechanisms worked perfectly … The voters, once again, were fooled.

 
 
Le danger de la manipulation démocratique
We must not believe that citizens are not interested in politics. Television audiences at election time have an enviable audience, comparable to those of major sporting events. The increase in the number of abstentions from one round to the next, the importance of white and null votes, shows that citizens want to participate even when they feel caught in a trap.

Among the few clear commitments of the candidate Emmanuel Macron, there is the intention to develop the labor law and to have it adopted by ordinances, possibly by using the 49.3.
For this, however, there must be some acceptance by the National Assembly. That is to say now the importance of the legislative elections. Emmanuel Macron should benefit from the renewed dynamics of support. Perhaps he will make some announcement in order to obtain a majority which will allow him to pass on what is close to his heart.

Le danger de la manipulation démocratique
As long as the democratic and electoral path seems open, political parties can channel demands and maintain hope in evolution and change. When these parties fail and are no longer bearers, even in an illusory way of hope, when everything is perfectly locked, how can we be surprised that some choose inertia and others revolt and violence?

Emmanuel Macron should remember it at the risk of the austéritaire, austerity and authority. François Hollande left the instruments in place.

Le danger de la manipulation démocratique

« Anar » Weekend in Ménilmontant

En français

Saturday, May 6, 2017, as part of the Resistance Month organized by the City of Paris, the association 24 Août44 presented in the center Paris Anim ‘of the 19 ° (Place des Fêtes) a reading of testimonies From libertarian Spain to The exile, from 1936 to the present day, followed by the film, We must watch, a documentary by François Boutonnet built from archival images and testimonies of Jordi and José who knew children, war of Spain, the Retirada and the camps of exile. And who have rebuilt another life in the South of France, turned towards the future (1).
Recalling that the first Frenchmen who entered Paris on 24 August 44 were Spaniards … often anarchists!

Sunday, May 7, Place de Ménilmontant, some photos of the popular ball

 

Week-end à Ménilmontant
Week-end à Ménilmontant
Week-end à Ménilmontant
Week-end à Ménilmontant
Week-end à Ménilmontant
Week-end à Ménilmontant
Week-end à Ménilmontant
Week-end à Ménilmontant
Week-end à Ménilmontant
Week-end à Ménilmontant
Week-end à Ménilmontant
Week-end à Ménilmontant
Week-end à Ménilmontant
Week-end à Ménilmontant
Week-end à Ménilmontant
Week-end à Ménilmontant
Week-end à Ménilmontant
Week-end à Ménilmontant
Week-end à Ménilmontant

1 – Il nous faut regarder (Libres itinéraires d’exil de Jordi et José) Film of François Boutonnet, 52 minutes, Cinéma – 2010, DVD – 2011.

 

Presidential election: cluster bomb and time bomb ?

Macron et après ?

Emmanuel Macron is elected President of the Republic after a devastating election campaign: everything has to be rebuilt for everyone. And especially for democracy.
Emmanuel Macron was elected with a comfortable majority. But…

It should not be forgotten that in the first round he obtained only 24% of the votes and that a good part of the 66% obtained in the second round are voices of refusal of Marine Le Pen. Whatever the national press says today, which made the « useful » voting in the first and second ballots the main argument for Macron choice. The international press, relieved, makes this election an unconditional adherence to the European Union, dubbed Europe. This promises more alignment with the European Union than it is with initiatives for a social and democratic Europe.
Even more than his predecessor, everything but Nicolas Sarkozy, Emmanuel Macron is elected by default, everything but Marine Le Pen. The magic of the electoral system magnifies the political line of less than a quarter of the voters of the first round …

Which team? This is where the problems begin. It is not surprising that Emmanuel Macron is not in a hurry to give the name of his Prime Minister. The ambiguity must last as long as possible to maintain the hope of everyone in view of the legislative elections.

Macron et après ?
There is no longer a party of united government, of right or left, if that ever existed. There were at least appearances. The caciques are either eliminated or in great danger of being so. The survivors will be counted after the legislative elections.
There is not, at present, a majority of government. It all depends on the next election. What will Emmanuel Macron decide on the investitures: candidates « En Marche », pure label? Presidential majority, open to all supporters, with what distribution between PS, LR and Macroniens pure label? What is the place for recycling? For outgoing MPs?
The cluster bomb of the presidential election is also a time bomb. Its effects will be felt during the legislative elections and well afterwards. A reconstruction of the entire political landscape is likely. So that nothing changes. In the legislative elections, all those who voted Emmanuel Macron will not vote for candidates stamped Macron. Risk of appearing multiple competitors rallied from the first or last hourAlready, those who want to participate in the government and those who just want to support are heard. Those who want to make a presidential party and those who want to preserve, in one form or another, their old structure, opposition? Participation? Splits are going on right. Some think that there is a place for a right-wing opposition that could recover some of the voters of Marine Le Pen and even go a long way with the reasonable part of this party which also wants to open to approach the power.

Macron et après ?
For we must not forget Marine Le Pen and the National Front. She came in second in the first round, with 21.3% and 34% and 10.6 million votes in the second. That is twice as much as Jean-Marie Le Pen (5.5 million) in 2002 against Jacques Chirac.
These results are the best obtained by the NF and Marine Le Pen and constitute an important progression compared to the previous results, witnesses of the failure of the policies followed to date.
This vote is likely to be somewhat forgotten, especially if the glass ceiling is effective locally in the legislative elections to prevent the election of deputies of the NF. These results only moderately worry politicians. They will be able to use them, again in the legislative elections, to promote the useful vote for them, which allows them to continue. What worries them even less than the results is the situation of the citizens who vote National Front by suffering and despair.
In the last days of the campaign, the « dediabolisation » was translated into the desire of Marine Le Pen not to appear as the president of the NF, by the opening to Nicolas Dupont-Aignan, the confusion about retirement or Exit of the euro … But too little and too late. Insufficient to approach power and 40%.
Hence his desire to pursue a change that reveals divisions between those who want to go further, change the name of the party, expand further … And those who want to maintain and return to the fundamentals, especially on immigration. With some mistakes like the behavior of Marine Le Pen during the debate between the two rounds, the unfortunate appointment of an interim president not presentable …
Also with the temptation of hardening, violence for some who hardly support a « dediabolisation » that they accepted in the hope of reaching power soon. 
 A maintained PS seems to have little chance. Those who could do it, because they hold the organization, do not want it. Valls has long said, the word socialist irritates his gums. Those who want are not able to. The 6% of Hamon is not enough. And is it playable, given the historical vicissitudes of the family that goes from Guy Mollet to François Hollande through the illusionist François Mitterrand?

Francois Hollande, by his sacrifice, has practically succeeded. Breaking the PS and paving the way for a government party that will not have finance as an enemy, which will have eliminated any socialist superego to make it the equivalent of the Italian Democratic Party (PD) or the German Social Democratic Party . The French socialist exception, admittedly illusory, has lived.

For the PS minority, for EELV, their separate future is fragile. Their future in common uncertain. Temptation of a new PSU? With the same future? A dynamic merger towards an unequivocal left-wing ecologist party? Or end of comet bringing together ecologists who have followed the tribulations of the PS and the socialists who denounced them?

The left of the left is in a situation, apparently, more positive. The work, methods and results of Jean-Luc Mélenchon and France Insoumise bring hope with many pitfalls. Jean-Luc Mélenchon and François Hollande killed the PS. Will Jean-Luc Mélenchon and Pierre Laurent kill the PC? Or the PC and France Insoumise?

The importance, never achieved, of abstention and of white or null votes can make hope for the continuation of the mobilization around France Insoumise. More than 4.2 million voters turned out for the second round and put a blank or no ballot in the box (2.15 million in 2012), a record for such a ballot, already marked by a very strong abstention (25.44%). But it must not be forgotten that these abstentions and votes are not all left-wing.
On the other hand, if the left of the left regains a certain dynamism, it can attract again a part of those who voted Macron under the pressure of the commentators of polls (more than polls themselves), editorialists, some thinkers of the left who played with fear, with bad conscience. At first and second round.
In the first round, 4 candidates obtained results close to 20% with an abstention rate of the same level. In the second round, Emmanuel Macron took him far ahead of Marine Le Pen. But the results and the importance of the abstentions and of the white and nil vote in the two rounds do not make it possible to foresee the composition of the next National Assembly, since it will depend on very different circumstances in the 577 constituencies. It will depend on the dynamics that will be created in the coming days.
It is not sure that it benefits only Emmanuel Macron.
This allows everyone to leave with some hope. And with great expectations for the polls and their commentators.

Macron et après ?